psy 421 quiz 3 study guide

psy 421 quiz 3 study guide - Quiz 3 Study Guide Chapter 8...

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Quiz 3 Study Guide Chapter 8 Declarative Memory - recall of events and experiences from one’s past and generic, factual knowledge of the world. Semantic Memory - generic, factual knowledge of the world. Episodic Memory - events and experiences from one’s past. Implicit Memory - memory for information that the individual is not consciously aware of having. Working Memory - a limited capacity system that maintains information on a temporary basis. Has 3 components: central executive, visuospatial sketchpad, and phonological loop. Mnemonic strategies - strategies such as rehearsal and organization to aid storage and recall of memories. Recall - actively recalling or bringing to mind previous experiences. Recognition - realizing that something is familiar and has been experienced before. Infantile Amnesia - the inability to recall autobiographic memories before the age of about 3 years. Meltzhoff (1985) : Deferred Imitation Study. Showed that 14 month-olds could retain information about how to pull apart a toy over a 24-hour period. Demonstrated that infants could encode relevant information, store it, and retrieve it. : modeled having a bath to young children from 17-23 months by demonstrating giving a teddy bear a bath. When tested for immediate recall, children were very capable of reproducing the modeled sequence of events. Could even remember the correct sequence after 6 weeks. This suggests that young children’s representations of events are temporally ordered. Reese et al. (1993) : observed mother-child dyads at 40, 46, 58, and 70 months. Mothers talked with their child about past events and were either 1) elaborative (elaborated on the child’s info and evaluated it) or 2) non-elaborative (repeated the same question – “And what else?”). Found that children with elaborative mothers recalled more info at 58 and 70 months. : asked 8 year olds about events that happened in their past. They found that talking about previous events with family and friends heightens recall – 78% of children recalled the events and 80% of the info provided was new. Concluded that children are very good at retaining info over long periods of time from age 3 on. : with the Magic Shrinking Machine experiment, they found that one year later children had a very good nonverbal recall of the machine but their verbal recall was very poor. Never showed verbal recall for the toys involved with the machine even though they later did learn the names of the toys. Concluded that children cannot translate their preverbal experiences into language. Possible explanations of infantile amnesia include: early memories are encoded in physical sensations and cannot be accessed via language, that early memories are repressed as traumatic, or that crucial brain structures are not yet developed. But the best explanation is that it is a natural byproduct of the constructive process of memory.
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This note was uploaded on 01/06/2012 for the course PSY 421 taught by Professor Josephholifield during the Fall '10 term at Cal Poly.

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psy 421 quiz 3 study guide - Quiz 3 Study Guide Chapter 8...

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