psy 457 final review questions

psy 457 final review questions - Final Review Questions 1....

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Final Review Questions 1. Lashley criticized the Behaviorist’s Word-by-word Model explanation of language. This model proposes that each word must be accounted for individually and that each word is a separate behavior. Different explanations must be given for each different event/word that we say. This model says that when saying a sentence, each word is a stimulus for the next one. i.e. “The cat sat on the mat” – some stimulus in the environment made us say “the.” “The” then acts as a stimulus to say “cat” because we remember being reinforced for saying “cat” after saying “the” sometime in the past, etc. Chomsky criticized the Utterance Model. This model states that every sentence, etc. is novel and that language is endless. There is a good chance that any occasion is the first time you’ve ever said a phrase, and that almost all of the time, everything we say is novel. This would mean that the possibilities for creating sentences would be endless (i.e. 10 20 possibilities for 20-word sentences). Chomsky stated that there are statements that make sense grammatically but have no meaning (i.e. the ball played with the boy). He also argued that language is systematic – that words/utterances are whole, not different parts all spliced together. If this were the case, there would be people who could understand a phrase like “The boy kissed the girl” but would be unable to understand “Then girl kissed the boy” and vice versa which is obviously not the case. 2. There are 4 main arguments for the nativism of language: underdeterminism of evidence, vocabulary, critical period, and Williams syndrome. Underdeterminism of evidence argues that people are predisposed to learn language. That there is a critical period in which people must learn language, or they may never acquire it. Humans are way too good at language as children to not be predisposed to learning it. Children are also prone to making up their own languages and constructions. Adults also do the same when they speak in Pidgin, which is purely words without syntax. It is generally used among people who speak different languages – they only use the key words to convey their thoughts or needs (i.e. “me bathroom now”). Children also have an innate ability to create sentences, further suggesting that learning language is innate. They automatically know how to change a statement into a question (i.e. “A unicorn is in the garden.” “Is a unicorn in the garden?”) Vocabulary is an argument for nativism because between the ages of 3 and 8 children learn 15 new words a day. Also, there are no discrete words, just syllables. We add the pauses between words on our own, for our benefit and for that of others. Critical period for learning language as another argument is well demonstrated in
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This note was uploaded on 01/06/2012 for the course PSY 457 taught by Professor Jasonwilliams during the Spring '10 term at Cal Poly.

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psy 457 final review questions - Final Review Questions 1....

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