psy 458 learning objectives ch. 7

psy 458 learning objectives ch. 7 - 1 2 3 4 Learning...

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Learning Objectives: Ch.7 1. An S-O association says that a subject will begin to pair certain distinct stimuli (S) with the reinforcer or response outcome (O). This pairing provides the potential for classical conditioning and the establishment of an association between stimulus and reinforcer. The S-O association is one of the mechanisms of reward expectancy in instrumental conditioning. The Pavlovian-Instrumental Transfer Test is the best design for providing evidence of this association. In one phase, subjects receive standard instrumental conditioning (i.e. lever press with food). In the next phase they receive a pure Pavlovian conditioning procedure (response lever removed, tone now paired with food). In the third phase (the critical phase), the subjects are again allowed to perform the instrumental (lever- press) response, but with the Pavlovian conditioned stimulus being periodically presented. If an S-O association motivates instrumental behavior, then the rate of lever pressing should increase when the tone CS is presented. 2. One common technique for providing evidence of R-O associations involves devaluing the reinforcer after conditioning to see if it decreases the instrumental response. This strategy is analogous to the strategy of US devaluation in studies of Pavlovian conditioning. First, well-establish responses to 2 different alternatives. Then only present one of the reinforcers periodically followed by something to present an aversion to that reinforcer. After the aversion has been conditioned, the subject is returned to the original test where they can choose from either of the original responses and reinforcers. The results indicate that subjects are less likely to make the response for the reinforcer that has been made aversive to them.
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