psy 458 Learning Objectives Ch. 10

psy 458 Learning Objectives Ch. 10 - 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7....

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Learning Objectives Ch. 10 1. The two-process theory of avoidance assumes that 2 mechanisms are involved in avoidance learning. This first component is the classical conditioning of fear to the CS. This theory treats conditioned fear as a source of motivation for avoidance learning. The second component is instrumental reinforcement of the avoidance response through fear reduction. This theory explains avoidance behavior in terms of escape from conditioned fear rather than in terms of the prevention of shock. The instrumental response is reinforced by a tangible event (fear reduction) rather than the absence of something. 2. Discriminated avoidance involves discrete trials where each trial is initiated by a warning stimulus or CS. The following events depend on what the subject does, like making the required response to terminate the US for that trial or not. Are often conducted in a shuttle box. Free-operant avoidance does not involve a warning stimulus. The aversive stimulus occurs periodically without warning. Each time a subject makes the avoidance response they acquire a period of safety during when the aversive stimulus doesn’t occur. Free-operant avoidance has 2 time intervals: shock-shock (S-S) intervals, or the time between aversive stimuli, and response-shock (R-S) interval, or the period of safety created by the response. 3. Safety signals are response feedback stimuli that acquire conditioned inhibitory properties and become signals for the absence of aversive stimulation. The safety signals that accompany avoidance learning can possibly provide positive reinforcement for avoidance behavior. Safety signals can explain free-operant avoidance learning because they indicate the amount of time that a subject will be safe from the aversive stimulus when they make the required response. 4. Species-specific defense reactions are innate responses that are assumed to have evolved because they are successful in defense against pain and injury and are individual to each species. It is important to consider these reactions in avoidance and punishment
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This note was uploaded on 01/06/2012 for the course PSY 458 taught by Professor Kathleenryan during the Spring '10 term at Cal Poly.

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psy 458 Learning Objectives Ch. 10 - 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7....

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