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psy 458 learning objectives ch. 6-7

psy 458 learning objectives ch. 6-7 - Learning Objectives...

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Learning Objectives: Ch. 6 1. For ratio schedules , reinforcement depends on the number of responses an organism has performed. All that is required is to count the number of responses and deliver the reinforcer each time the required amount of responses is reached. In interval schedules , responses are only reinforced if they occur after a certain amount of time has passed. In fixed-ratio schedules , the number of responses made indicate the amount and frequency of reinforcers received. There is a steady and high rate of responding once the behavior gets under way but there may be a pause at the end of one set of responses and before the start of the next set. With variable-ratio schedules , different amounts of responses are required to receive a reinforcer/the number of responses required for reinforcement is unpredictable, which means that pauses in the response rate are much less likely than with VR schedules. In fixed-interval schedules , the amount of time that has to pass before a response is reinforced is the same trial to trial. A pattern of responding develops where the response rate increases as it gets closer to the time when the next reinforcer will be available. For variable- interval schedules , an unpredictable amount of time is required to prepare/set up for the reinforcer meaning there is no set amount of time passage that indicates the presentation of a reinforcer. This maintains a steady and stable rate of responding without regular pauses. In multiple studies, it has been found that variable-ratio schedules motivate much more vigorous instrumental behavior than variable-interval schedules. The response rates for ratio schedules are much higher than those for interval schedules, demonstrating that schedules can alter motivation of instrumental behavior. Ratio schedules produce much more behavior. 2. Response rate is directly related to reinforcement rate. With ratio schedules, there are no time constraints and the faster a participant completes the required number of responses, the faster they will receive the reinforcer, meaning that ratio schedules favor and differentially reinforce short inter-response times. The feedback functions for ratio schedules are increasing linear functions with no limit. But interval schedules favor longer response rates and inter-response times and have an upper limit on the number of reinforcers a subject can earn.
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