psy 458 learning objectives ch. 8

psy 458 learning objectives ch. 8 - 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7....

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Learning Objectives Ch. 8 1. In stimulus discrimination , organisms respond differently to 2 or more stimuli. The stimulus control of instrumental behavior is demonstrated by variations in responding (differential responding) related to the variations in stimuli. Stimulus generalization is the opposite of stimulus discrimination. Organisms respond in a similar way to 2 or more stimuli. Has a gradient of responding as a function of how similar each test stimulus is to the original one (stimulus generalization gradient). 2. Overshadowing deals with how strongly an organism learns about one stimulus which depends on how easily other cues in the situation can become conditioned over the first one. It is a competition among stimuli for access to the processes of learning. Normally, the stronger/more intense stimulus overshadows the learning of the weaker one. According to the configural-cue approach , overshadowing reflects different degrees of generalization decrement from training to testing for the overshadowing and the control groups. Greater generalization decrements are responsible for the overshadowing effect. 3. The steepness of a generalization gradient provides an exact measure of the degree of stimulus control. A steep gradient indicates good stimulus control and vice versa with a flat gradient. The gradient can be altered by experience and learning because as an organism has more time/experience to learn the wanted associations, the gradient will get steeper. This is because with more experience and learning the organism will have a greater degree of stimulus control. 4. With intradimensional discrimination , the S+ and S- differ only in one stimulus feature (i.e. pitch). They are related to the issue of expert performance because this involves making subtle distinctions. Can produce peak shifts. 5. The peak-shift effect occurs when the highest rates of responding occur to stimuli that haven’t previously been presented during the original training, causing the peak of the generalization gradient to move away from the original S+. It is produced by intradimensional discrimination training because control groups didn’t receive intradimensional discrimination training and don’t show the peak shift effect. It is also a function of the similarity between the S- and S+ used in discrimination training. The biggest peak-shifts will be seen when the S- is very similar to the S+. 6. Conditioned excitation occurs when a CS is paired with a US, leading to an association between the two. This then causes the presentation of the CS to activate a representation of the US. Is the conditioning of excitation to the CS. A modulator on the other hand, doesn’t need to have conditioned excitatory properties because conditioning excitatory properties to a stimulus don’t make the stimulus a modulator. The ability of a modulator to promote responding elicited by another CS remains intact during extinction, but its effectiveness is reduced if the CS-US relation signaled by the modulator is altered. 7.
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This note was uploaded on 01/06/2012 for the course PSY 458 taught by Professor Kathleenryan during the Spring '10 term at Cal Poly.

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psy 458 learning objectives ch. 8 - 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7....

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