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Unformatted text preview: STUDY GUIDE FOR BIOLOGY 1500 2/23/07 EXAM 2: PLANTS AND FUNGI Expect: 2-3 questions on plant nutrition 4 -5 questions on plant hormones 6-7 questions on gymnosperms 12-15 questions on vascular and non-vascular seedless plants 20-25 questions on kingdom fungi Plant Transport 1. How does water move in a plant? Water enters the plant through root hair, the travel up to the cortex, then to the xylem, then from the xylem it travels to the stoma where it evaporates from. 2. Why do water move the way it does in a plant? Water move into root hair because of osmotic potentials, into the cortex because of negative matrix and osmotic potential, move up the xylem because of evaporation of water in the stoma. Water is polar so when one molecule move all the others tend to move with it. The negative pressure generated by transpiration is the reason for upward movement in the xylem. (pulling force) 3. How does nutrients move in a plant? Nutrients such as sugar start from a source (can vary depending on situation), then it will travel to the sink(actively growing areas), then travel to the phloem. In order to get from source to sink and sink to phloem ATP is needed. From the phloem pressure potential make sugar go into other cells, water will follow sugar. As sugar and water fill the cell, the cell wall will expand, then pressure will push the sugar out. Excess sugar is stored as starch. Plant Nutrition 1. What are the types of element you need to know and where are these nutrients needed in the plant? BORON- is involved in DNA and RNA synthesis, root elongation , pollen tube elongation CALCIUM-is involved in the regulation of enzymes and plant development, and binds with the pectin in cell walls. CARBON- is the basic building block of all organic molecules. Plants use carbon in making carbohydrates . HYDROGEN- is ubiquitous and is a component of most organic molecules. Its ion is often used as a proton in proton pumps. IRON- is essential in that it is an electron receptor/carrier in enzymes involved in photosynthesis and respiration . MAGNESIUM- is present in chlorophyll , activates enzymes in respiration, photosynthesis and nucleic acid synthesis, and binds with ATP in certain reactions. Mg is the ultimate electronic receptor in all chlorophyll. NITROGEN- is an essential component of proteins, nucleic acids and other organic compounds. Despite the fact that diatomic nitrogen composes most of the atmosphere, plants cannot utilize it in this form. Plants can only take up the ammonium ion and the nitrate. Fungi and Bacteria are needed to change diatomic nitrogen into ammonium so that the plants can absorb it. Plants can change nitrate into ammonium themselves. Plants need the nitrogen for protein , amino acids, nucleotides, nucleic acids, chlorophyll, coenzymes, and enzymes....
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