Seismic Events

Seismic Events - Understanding Seismic Events Ch.3 of...

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Unformatted text preview: Understanding Seismic Events Ch.3 of “Elements of 3D Seismology” by Chris Liner Or “ How to tell the difference between a reflection, a refraction a diffraction from one or more buried layers” Outline-1 • Full space, half space and quarter space • Traveltime curves of direct ground- and air- waves and rays • Error analysis of direct waves and rays • Constant-velocity-layered half-space • Constant-velocity versus Gradient layers • Reflections • Scattering Coefficients Outline-2 • AVA-- Angular reflection coefficients • Vertical Resolution • Fresnel- horizontal resolution • Headwaves • Diffraction • Ghosts • Land • Marine • Velocity layering • “approximately hyperbolic equations” • multiples A few NEW and OLD idealizations used by applied seismologists….. “Acoustic waves can travel in either a constant velocity full space, a half-space, a quarter space or a layered half-space” IDEALIZATION #1: X-X z-z A full space is infinite in all directions-X z A half-space is semi-infinite X-X z A quarter-space is quarter-infinite X Outline • Full space, half space and quarter space • Traveltime curves of direct ground- and air- waves and rays • Error analysis of direct waves and rays • Constant-velocity-layered half-space • Constant-velocity versus Gradient layers • Reflections • Scattering Coefficients-X z A direct air wave and a direct ground P-wave ….. X A direct air wave and a direct ground P-wave ….. A direct air wave and a direct ground P-wave ….. A direct air wave and a direct ground P-wave ….. The data set of a shot and its geophones is called a shot gather or ensemble . Vp air Vp ground ray wavefront geophone Traveltime curves for direct arrivals Shot-receiver distance X (m) Time (s) Traveltime curves for direct arrivals Shot-receiver distance X (m) Time (s) Air-wave or air- blast (330 m/s) Direct ground P-wave e.g. 1000 m/s dT dT dx dx Outline • Full space, half space and quarter space • Traveltime curves of direct ground- and air- waves and rays • Error analysis of direct waves and rays • Constant-velocity-layered half-space • Constant-velocity versus Gradient layers • Reflections • Scattering Coefficients Error analysis of direct waves and rays See also http://www.rit.edu/cos/uphysics/uncertainties/Uncer taintiespart2.html by Vern Lindberg • Liner presents the general error analysis method with partial differentials....
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This note was uploaded on 01/06/2012 for the course GEO 4068 taught by Professor Lorenzo during the Fall '10 term at LSU.

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Seismic Events - Understanding Seismic Events Ch.3 of...

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