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Exam 4 Study Guide - Exam 4 Study Guide Topics to know are...

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Exam 4 Study Guide Topics to know are listed below. Not all will be tested. Nearly every question will require you to combine knowledge or skills from multiple topics. Chapter 11 o Describing bonding in H 2 + - (p.411) the two 1s electrons of two H atoms occupy the overlapping 1s orbitals and have opposite spins. o Molecular orbital quantum numbers (sigma, pi, etc.) – sigma bonds are end-to-end overlaps and pi bonds are side-to-side overlaps. o Constructive and destructive interference leading to bonding and antibonding orbitals – when amplitudes of atomic wave functions are added, a bonding molecular orbital results, and electron density increases between the nuclei. Conversely, when the amplitudes of the wave functions are subtracted, an antibonding MO results, which has a node (region of zero electron density) between the nuclei o Molecular orbital energy diagrams – shows the relative energy and number of electrons in each MO, as well as the AOs from which they formed. o Orbital hybridization Evidence that we need to do it – it allows us to explain how atomic orbitals mix and change their characteristics during bonding. (also see p. 412) Representing with a molecular orbital energy diagram – (p. 412-417) Nomenclature and geometry of hybridized orbitals - (p. 412-417) Chapter 6 o Relationship between heat transfer and temperature change (concepts, and how to use heat capacities and specific heats) – (p. 246) o Heat, work, energy changes, and enthalpy changes (concepts, sign conventions) (p.237-245) o Calorimetery
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