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Final Exam Study Guide

Final Exam Study Guide - Final Exam Study Guide He will...

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Final Exam Study Guide - He will include all constants needed and the periodic table on the test - CLBN 101, 4-5:30 PM Chapter 1 o Components of the scientific method Observations: the facts that our ideas must explain and the basic to scientific thinking Hypothesis: proposal made to explain an observation Experiment: a clear set of procedural steps that tests a hypothesis Model: explanation based upon the experiment results that explains how the observed phenomena occurred o Physical vs. chemical properties/changes Physical Properties: those that a substance shows by itself, without changing into or interacting with another substance Physical Changes: change from a solid, liquid, or gas Chemical Properties: those that a substance shows as it changes into or interacts with another substance Chemical change: aka chemical reaction, occurs when a substance is converted into a different substance o SI units and conversions using common prefixes (primarily milli and kilo) – Page 18 & 19 o Dimensional analysis using detailed units - Page 16 o Significant figures - Page 29-31 o Precision - how close the measurements in a series are to each other o Accuracy - how close a measurement is to the actual value o Systematic Errors - produces values that are either all higher or all lower than the actual value o Random Errors - produces values that are higher and lower than the actual value Chapter 2 o Law of definite proportions- no matter what its source, a particular compound is composed of the same elements in the same parts (fractions) by mass o Law of multiple proportions - if element A and B react to form two compounds, the different masses of B that combine with a fixed mass of A can be expresses as a ratio of small whole numbers o Avogadro's hypothesis (from chapter 5, but class discussion went beyond what chapter 5 said) – equal volumes = equal number of particles. He observed that in a lot of gas-phase reactions there is a combining in simple, whole number ratios, showing that we are counting something, that something being atoms. o Postulates of Dalton's atomic theory- All matter consists of atoms, tiny indivisible particles of an element that cannot be created or destroyed
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Atoms of one element cannot be converted into atoms of another element. In chemical reactions, the atoms of the original substances recombine to form different substances. Atoms of an element are identical in mass and other properties and are different from atoms of any other element Compounds result from the chemical combination of a specific ratio of atoms of different elements o Observations leading to a nuclear model for the atom - page 48-57 o Isotopes- isotopes of an element are atoms that have different numbers of neutrons and therefore different mass numbers o Relative abundances - based on the natural abundance of different isotopes of the certain element o Averaged atomic masses - the average of masses of its naturally occurring isotopes according to their abundances o
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Final Exam Study Guide - Final Exam Study Guide He will...

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