Exam 3 Review - ANSI 2253 Exam Review W 1. Define...

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Unformatted text preview: ANSI 2253 Exam Review W 1. Define cutability. Proportion of the carcass weight in closely trimmed retail cuts from the major wholesale cuts. 2. cattle, sheep, and swine marketed at? A complete market description addresses all aspects of relative merit: age, weight, sex class, fatness and muscling. 3. Define palatability. Tenderness, Juiciness, Flavor 4. Why do hogs dress higher than sheep/cattle? Because they are non-rumens 5. What do quality grades predict? Predicts palatability: tenderness, juiciness, and flavor Based on maturity and marbling score 6. What do yield grades predict? Predicts cutability Based on Fat thickness (preliminary yield grade PYG), Hot Carcass Weight HCW, Ribeye Area REA, Kidney, Pelvic, & Heart Fat % (KPH) 7. What are the 4 lean cuts of pork carcasses? l. Ham 2. Loin 3. Boston Butt 4. Picnic Shoulder 8. Where are pork carcasses ribbed? 10th rib 9. Where are beef carcasses ribbed? Between 12th and 13th rib 10. What factors are used to calculate fat free lean of pork carcasses? How, LEA, Fat Depth @ 10th rib 11. What are characteristics of PSE pork? Pale, Soft, Exudative 12. What are the factors of beef yield grades? Fat thickness @ 12th rib, REA, HCW, KPH% 13. What factor are beef rounds placed on? Cutability 14. What factor is most important to place beef ribs? Quality 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. What are the 4 major wholesale cuts of beef? 1. Round 2. Loin 3. Rib 4. Chuck What is Warner—Bratzler shear force? Pounds of force to shear one-half inch cores, removed parallel to the muscle fibers of cooked muscle from steaks to roasts. What things result in tougher meat? What are plant enzymes that improve tenderness? (Exogenous enzymes) Papain- Papaya Bromelin— Pineapple Ficin— Figs Rhozyme— Fungal What is the inhibitor of calpains? Calpastain Wet aging and dry aging Wet aging is the aging of meat in vacuum bags (usually the middle meats) under refrigerated conditions of 32-340 F. Dry aging is done by hanging meat in a controlled, closely watched, refrigerated environment. 32—36° F Color of fresh meat? Pork- Pink Lamb— Light Red Beef— Cherry Red What gives meat its color? The Protein Myoglobin Color of meat in a vacuum bag? Purplish Red Brown form of myglobin? Metmyoglobin What are the steps of slaughter? Stunning or Immobilization Exsanguination- sever jugular veins and carotid arteries Removal of Hide/Hair (pork) Removal of Shanks, and Head Shanks are removed at the break joints and Head is removed at the occipital condyles and atlas vertebra Bunged & Weasend— Tying and loosening of the rectum and Tying of the esophagus Evisceration— The pluck and viscera are removed together O O O O 0.9 6.9 0.9 O .9 9.9 Trim, Wash, and Trotters (fore—shank) are exposed Splitting/ Chill- Placed in Hot Box 26. Used to prevent cold shortening and improve color? Cold Shortening - Longer Sarcomeres Improve Color Vitamin E feeding of Cattle 27. First Certified Program? Certified Angus Beef 28. Breed type associated with higher quality grades? Angus Variety in Cattle: Variety in Beef Quality 29. What is the most tender muscle? Psoas Major (Tender Loin) 30. What is the toughest muscle? Deep Pectoral (Brisket) 31. What affects palatability the most? Cooking 32. What university invented “Tenderstretch”? Texas A&M 33. What is fed to cattle to prevent oxidation of beef? Vitamin E 34. What is a serving size of meat? 302 35. What mineral is deficient in over 7 million women but beef is an excellent source of? Iron National Beef S Quality Audit- 2005 Fourth such audit- 1991,1995, 2000, 2005 Survey of producer related issues: Management and Genetics Focus on end products of beef production Used as a basis for many cattle producers and animal scientists Top Ten Beef Quality Defects: End Users > Lack of uniformity/consistency in marbling and tenderness > Cuts are too large for food service & restaurant trade > Excess Fat > Abscesses/lesions in cuts, trimmings & variety meats. > Blood Splashed muscle Greatest Improvements: End Users > Improved microbiological safety > Improved Cattle Genetics (i.e., more Angus) and beef of higher USDA Quality Grades. > Fewer injection-site lesions 6' Future Issues for the Beef Industry: End Users New bacterial pathogens (especially MDR strains) Additional BSE issues Market access & export requirements (age and source verification, a must) Price of beef so high that it cannot compete Eating inconsistencies VVVVVV Animals keep getting bigger (weight and size problems) 0:0 Beef Quality Concerns of those Who Trade Beef to Export Markets > Top 5 Beef Quality Concerns I Unknown age and source (need mandatory ID and traceability) I Size and weight variability I Insufficient marbling I Dull and Dark Lean Color I Administration of growth-promoting implants > Other Concerns I Feeding Vit E should be mandatory I Appropriate animal welfare should be assured I Tenderness should be genetically assured I Beef is excessively fat I Should be inj ection-site free '3’ Top Ten Quality Challenges Across Four NBQAs > Identified in all four audits I Excess external fat I Inadequate tenderness I Insufficient marbling I Excess carcass/cut weights > Identified in 3 audits I Hide problems I Lack of uniformity > Disappeared from last 2 audits I Inj ection-site lesions > Brand-new in most recent audits I Lack of traceability I Need for instrument grading I Need for clearer market signals I Need for communication among sectors O 9.0 00 O O O. 99 US. Beef Industry Flow Calving Weaning Feeding Harvest—Fabrication Retail Sales V‘VVVV Meat Tenderness and Meat Tenderization Important Factors Taste Nutrition Price Product Safety Storability Food Prep Time Tender Muscles VVVVVV > Psoas Major (tender loin) most tender > Infras pinatus (chuck) take connective tissue out flat iron steak) > Gluteus Medius (top sirloin) centercut > Longissmus dorsi (ribeye) > Triceps brachii (chuck) petite tender III. Intermediate Muscles- can’t stand alone (moist slow heat) > Biceps femoris (sirloin) > Rectusfemoris (round) > Adductor (round) > Semitendinosus (round) > Semimembranosus (round) IV. Tough Muscles- moist slow heat > Deep pectoral (brisket) toughest > Latissimus dorsi > Trapezius > Superficial pectoral Difference Among Muscles > Actomyosin effect '- Sarcomere length 0 V Contracted = 2.5um (tough) o Resting = 3.5 (tender) 0 Stretched = 4.5 @3wa I Muscle fiber diameter I Sarcomere/Fragment I Methods to change sarcomere length 0 Texas A&M stretch 0 Tender cut 0 Electrical Stimulation > Background effect I Stromal protein concentration I Size of elastin fibrils I Solubility of collagen > Bulk density/ Lubrication effect I Amount of marbling I Distribution of marbling 4’ Additional Factors > Bos Indicus vs. Bos Taurus I Calpastatin activity > vs. Support Muscles ’awflfc/ . . . . I Muscles used for locomotlon have hlgher connectwe tissue levels > Quality Grades > Degree of Doneness- Marbling helps insure acceptable tenderness at a higher degree of doneness I Rare, Medium Rare, Medium, Medium Well, Well Done > Age at Slaugter I Poultry < Pork < Beef > Diet I Grass Fed vs. Concentrate I Days on feed 4' Meat Tenderization Methods > Cause Sarcomeres to be longer I Prevents cold shortening o Subcutaneous fat 0 High temperatures pre—rigor (16° for 16 hrs) 0 Electrical Stimulation (550 volts drops pH) I Stretch Sarcomeres > Disrupt Integrity of Myofibrils I Endogenous enzymes Enzyme Location I Site of Action L Calpains cytosol Z lines Cathepsin Lysosomes Actin/ Myosin Calpastatin Cytosol ’ Inhibits Calpains o Cooler aging — 1-6 weeks at 0-3° C 0 High temp (post rigor) - 20°C for 24 hrs 0 High temp (pre rigor) - 16°C for 16 hrs 0 Electrical Stimulation — disrupts lysosomes o CaC12 infusion pre and post rigor I Exogenous enzymes (tenderizers) 0 Tropical Plant enzymes 6 Papain- Papaya, Bromelin— Pineapple, F icin— Figs 0 Heat activated I Severance of myofibrils 0 Electrical Stimulation 0 Blade Tenderization 0 Mechanical severance o Hyrodyne > Disrupt the integrity of connective tissue I Exogenous enzymes 0 Marination with salt and vinegar or water solution with 2% NaCl plus a.a. o Fungal enzyme O Rhozyme (fungal enzyme) Aspergillus oryzae 0 Tropical Plant enzymes 6 Papain- Papaya, Bromelin- Pineapple, Ficin- Figs I Severance of stromal proteins 0 Blade 0 Mechanical 0 Conversion of collagen to gelatin (moist heat cookery — braise, stew, roast) o Cooler aging Meat in the Diet ’1' Issues > Limiting dietary fat > Cholesterol > High Blood pressure > Getting proper vitamins and minerals > Losing weight '1‘ Percent Daily Values from 3 oz of lean Beaf Protein Zinc 33% Piraspiwms 389’}; '"I'hiamin 69:: Riboi‘iavin i 2% Niacin l {Pl-’6) Bat? B” [2 15% '2' Fat in Meat > Fat is an essential nutrient > Supplies energy and transports vitamins > Many beef cuts contain less fat than chicken '3‘ Iron > Helps deliver oxygen to cells and muscles > Iron from beef is used more easily by the body from beef than by plants '2‘ Zinc > Related to enzyme function > Cell replication > Hormone activity > Immune system needs zinc to resist infection .9 #6 Phosphorus > Strong teeth, bones, mineral balance B-Complex Vitamins > > > Most abundant in red meat B-12 not found in plants Meat supplies: B-6, B—12, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin Meat Color Dependent on: > > Pigment Content '- Two main pigments: myoglobin and hemoglobin I Majority of color is due to myoglobin Ultimate pH and rate of pH decline postmortem > Nature of group attached to the iron and the state of iron > Ingredients, processing, and packaging Factors Affecting Meat Color > VVVV VV Amount of myoglobin in muscle I Deoxmyoglobin- Deoxygenation (Purple) I Oxymyoglobin- Oxygenation (Bright Red) I Metmyoglobin- Brown Age Species: Pork < Lamb < Beef Type: Support < Locomotive Vitamin E feeding to cattle (prevents oxidation; retards conversion of myoglobin to metmyoglobin Bacteria (produce metmyglobin, choleglobin, and sulfmyglobin pigments Curing (N itrosylhemochromogen is the stable cured meat pigment) ...
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This note was uploaded on 01/08/2012 for the course ANSI 2253 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '11 term at Oklahoma State.

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Exam 3 Review - ANSI 2253 Exam Review W 1. Define...

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