Exam 3 Study Guide

Exam 3 Study Guide - Exam 3 Study Guide Chapter 19 o o...

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Exam 3 Study Guide Chapter 19 o Buffers and Titration Curves The general concepts for these sections (19.1 and 19.2) are not new. .. they are applications and extensions of equilibria, reaction tables, and acid-base concepts from chapters 17 and 18. 1. What is a buffer and why do we care? - in everyday language, a buffer is something that lessens the impact of an external force. An acid-base buffer is a solution that lessens the impact on pH from the addition of an acid or base. Buffers must contain an acidic component that can react with the added OH ion and a basic component that can react with added H 3 O ions. They usually consist of a conjugate acid-base pair of a weak acid or base (eq, mix of CH 3 COOH, acetic acid, and CH 3 COO - , acetate. We care because a buffered solution exhibits a much smaller change in pH when H 3 O + of OH - is added than does an unbuffered solution. 2. Buffer Range – the range over which the buffer acts effectively and it is related to the relative component concentrations 3. The Henderson-Hasselbalch equation and when to use it - , this equation is used to solve for the pH of a solution without having to solve for H 3 O + first. 4. Indicators – a weak organic acid that has a different color than its conjugate base, in which the color change happens over a specific and relatively narrow pH range, commonly known for being used in titration. 5. Titration curves (given concentrations and pKa or pKb values, can you generate one?) - p. 841-850, a plot of pH vs. volume of titrant added in which we can track the pH and its changes over the whole titration process. 6. Polyprotic compound - acids with more than one ionizable proton, many of them being weak except for sulfuric acid 7. Amphoteric compound – can act as a base or an acid, they dissolve very little in water but dissolve at a much greater extent in both acidic and basic solutions. Amphoteric metal hydroxides dissolve in acid and vase due to acid-
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Exam 3 Study Guide - Exam 3 Study Guide Chapter 19 o o...

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