Exam 4 Study Guide

Exam 4 Study Guide - Exam 4 Study Guide Chapter 15 Reasons...

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Exam 4 Study Guide Chapter 15 Reasons carbon has such complex bonding possibilities: o Wide range of bonding o Can form extended covalent networks o Forms short, strong bonds o No available d orbital (that can be attacked or occupied by lone pairs of incoming reactants) o Diversity of bonding o Can make large, structurally diverse molecules that are stable (H, O, N, S, P, halogens, others) o To form a C 4+ cation requires energy equal to the sum of IE 1 through IE 4 . o Carbon shares electrons to attain a filled outer (valence) lever, bonding covalentlyin all its elemental forms and compounds. o Its ability to catenate (form chains of atoms) because of the number and strength of carbons bonds o Relative heat of reaction in which relatively little heat is release when a C chain reacts and one bond replaces the other. Main reaction types: o Addition- p. 647, occurs when an unsaturated reactant becomes a saturated product. *the C atoms are bonded to more atoms in the product than in the reactant* The reaction is exothermic. By looking at the net change in bonds, we see that the driving force for many additions is the formation of two σ bonds from one σ bond and one relatively weak π bond. o Elimination- p.648, opposite of an addition reaction. It occurs when a saturated reactant becomes an unsaturated product *the C atoms are bonded to fewer atoms in the product than in the reactant*. The driving force for many elimination reactions is the formation of
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Exam 4 Study Guide - Exam 4 Study Guide Chapter 15 Reasons...

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