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Unformatted text preview: Final Exam Study Guide Chapter 12 o Properties of the states of matter – Gas: conforms to shape and volume of container, high compressibility, and high ability to flow. Liquid: conforms to shape of container, volume limited by surface, low compressibility, and moderate ability to flow. Solid: maintains its own shape and volume, has almost zero compressibility and ability to flow. o Enthalpies of phase transitions – heat of fusion, vaporization, and sublimation. These values are the same for the phase change in between those particular phases. Will be a exothermic for solid → liquid → gas and endothermic for gas → solid → liquid. o Heating/cooling curves – an application of the kinetic molecular theory quantitatively which shows the changes that occur when heat is added to or removed form a particular sample of matter at a constant rate. (slope is the heat capacity). o Liquid-gas equilibria – when a sample liquid is in a closed container with constant pressure and at the molecular level molecules are entering and leaving the liquid surface at equal rates. o Clausius-Clapeyron equation and its uses – ; This equation gives us a way of finding the heat of vaporization, or the energy needed to vaporize. o Vapor pressure –the pressure exerted by a vapor at equilibrium is called the vapor pressure of that liquid at that temperature. o Phase diagrams –Phase diagram is a visual tool to show a compound’s phase changing properties in which there are different phase regions of the diagram, lines between the regions showing where phase changes occur, and the critical and triple point. o Intermolecular forces – electrostatic attractions between opposite charges of ions and compounds. Ion-dipole – When an ion and a nearby polar molecule attract each other Hydrogen bonding – when a hydrogen atom is bonded with N, O, or F the electronegativity of these elements remove the electron density from the Hydrogen atom. As a result of this, the hydrogen atom is attracted to the partially negative lone pairs of N, O, and F. Dipole-dipole – when the positive pole of a molecule attracts the negative pole of another Ion-induced dipole – when an ion induces a distortion in the electron cloud of a molecule, resulting in a weak attraction Dipole-induced dipole – when a dipole of a molecule induces a distortion in the electron cloud of another molecule, also resulting in a weak attraction Dispersion (London) – caused by momentary oscillations of electron charge in atoms and because of this, they are present in all particles. o Effects of intermolecular forces on physical properties (e.g. boiling point) – higher intermolecular forces raise the boiling point, melting point, viscosity, surface tension, and capillarity....
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This note was uploaded on 01/08/2012 for the course CHEM 1515 taught by Professor White during the Fall '11 term at Oklahoma State.
- Fall '11
- States Of Matter