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Lecture2_090111 - SURFACE DATA AND WEATHER FEATURES WEATHER...

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SURFACE DATA AND SURFACE DATA AND WEATHER FEATURES WEATHER FEATURES MSC 243 Lecture #2 MSC 243 Lecture #2 09/01/11 09/01/11
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Recap from last week Recap from last week MOS is a combination of computer model output (run on supercomputers) and bias corrections. Models: GFS (AVN), NAM (ETA). While MOS is a good “first guess” at point forecasts for cities, it is not the only thing we should examine. Over the next few lectures, we look at the main weather observations used to find current conditions and to make short-term forecasts.
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This Lecture This Lecture AWOS / METAR Observations Decoding METAR Surface Station Models Pressure-Wind Relationship
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Surface Weather Analysis Surface Weather Analysis http://www.hpc.ncep.noaa.gov
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Surface Observations Surface Observations Automated Weather Observing System (AWOS)
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AWOS: AWOS: http://www.nws.noaa.gov/asos/ http://www.nws.noaa.gov/asos/ Instruments: Tipping bucket (rain gauge) Hygrothermometer (temp/dewpoint sensor) Present Weather Identifier (precip/fog/haze) Wind speed and direction sensors Ceilometer (cloud height) Freezing rain and thunderstorm sensors Visibility sensor Data collection, processing and transfer in METAR format
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Time and Temperature Time and Temperature Observations across the globe taken and recorded using Universal time (UTC) UTC = Greenwich Mean Time Eastern Daylight Time = UTC – 4 Hours Temperatures reported using Celsius scale F = (9/5)*C + 32 C = (5/9)*(F-32) C 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 F 32 41 50 59 68 77 86
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METAR Observations METAR Observations Website with key on decoding METAR observations http://weather.cod.edu/notes/metar.html
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METAR Observations METAR Observations Example METAR Report METAR KABC 121755Z AUTO 21016G24KT 180V240 1SM R11/P6000FT -RA BR BKN015 0VC025 06/04 A2990 RMK A02 PK WND 20032/25 WSHFT 1715 VIS 3/4V1 1/2 VIS 3/4 RWY11 RAB07 CIG 013V017 CIG 017 RWY11 PRESFR SLP125 POOO3 6OOO9 T00640036 10066 21012 58033 TSNO $ KABC - ICAO STATION (location) IDENTIFIER Four character ICAO location identifier. 121755Z - DATE/TIME All dates and times in UTC using a 24-hour clock; two-digit date and four-digit time; always appended with Z to indicate UTC. AUTO REPORT MODIFIER AUTO : Indicates a fully automated report with no human intervention. It is removed when an observer logs on to the system. COR : Indicates a corrected observation. No modifier indicates human observer or automated system with human logged on for oversight functions.
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METAR Observations METAR Observations Example METAR Report METAR KABC 121755Z AUTO 21016G24KT 180V240 1SM R11/P6000FT -RA BR BKN015 0VC025 06/04 A2990 RMK A02 PK WND 20032/25 WSHFT 1715 VIS 3/4V1 1/2 VIS 3/4 RWY11 RAB07 CIG 013V017 CIG 017 RWY11 PRESFR SLP125 POOO3 6OOO9 T00640036 10066 21012 58033 TSNO $ 21016G24KT - WIND DIRECTION AND SPEED Direction in degrees from true north (first three digits); next two digits: speed in whole knots; if needed, include character as: G usts (character) followed by maximum observed speed; always appended with KT to indicate knots; 00000KT for calm 180V240 - if direction varies by 60 o or more and speed greater than 6 knots, a V ariable wind direction group is reported, otherwise omitted. If wind direction is variable and speed 6 knots or less,
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