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Lecture2-EarthSystem1 - MPO551:Lecture2...

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MPO 551: Lecture 2 The Earth System (Chapter 2, Wallace and Hobbs)
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Earth System Components Oceans Carbon Cycle Cryosphere Hydrological Cycle (land surface)
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How does the ocean affect the atmosphere? Supplies moisture Meridional Heat Transport Horizontal structure: Stationary circulation Warm pool/cold tongue Uptake of carbon
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Meridional heat transport In the tropics, the partitioning is about 1:1 Trenberth & Caron 2001 Ocean Atmosphere Total
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Horizontal Structure Large heat capacity of ocean relative to land means that in winter land is colder than ocean and in summer it’s warmer
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Horizontal Structure Mean SST Departure of SST from zonal mean
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Horizontal Structure Ocean heat transport creates a ‘cold tongue’ on the equator, and warmer western basin in the mid latitudes
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Thought experiment What would happen to the atmosphere if the ocean did not transport heat?
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An answer from AGCM
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An answer from AGCM
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Carbon Cycle: Two most important GHGs Early Anthropogenic signal? (Ruddiman) Source: IPCC (2007) www.ipcc.ch
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Processes responsible for cycling of carbon between earth’s reservoirs
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Uptake of carbon by ocean Takahashi et al. 2009
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Uptake of carbon controlled by physics and biology Chlorophyll, an indicator of phytoplankton biomass, from NASA's SeaWiFS satellite.
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