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Unformatted text preview: *Catastrophe theory – catastrophism; the theory that earth has been affected by sudden, violent events that were sometimes worldwide in scope *Cladogram – a branching diagram in which the end points of the branches represent different species of organisms, used to illustrate phylogenetic relationships *Control – treatment that tells what would be seen in the absence of the experimental manipulation *Extinction – the death of the last individual in a species or the last species in a lineage *Fact – is an attempt to state our best current understanding of a specific phenomenon *Homology – characteristics shared by a set of species because they inherited them from their common ancestor *Homoplasy – characteristics shared by a set of species, often because they live in a similar environments, but not present in their common ancestor; often the product of convergent evolution *Hypothesis – a statement or explanation consistent with most of the observational and experimental evidence to date *Law – is when a theory has been thoroughly tested and confirmed over a long period of time *Linnaeus (Carolus) – described and named thousands of species on the basis of their similarities and differences; systema naturae; taxonomic hierarchy; binomen and binomial nomenclature *Lyell (Charles) – uniformitarian theory of geological change; stratigraphy and the geological time scale; showed that earth is extremely old *Natural selection – the evolutionary process by which alleles that increase the likelihood of survival and the reproductive output of the individuals that carry them become more common in subsequent generations *Null hypothesis – a statement of what would be seen if the hypothesis being tested were wrong *Organicists – 1930; vital force replaced by genetic program and the importance of emergence *Physicalists - with the exception of humans all living things are machines *Taxon (plural, taxa) – a name designating a group of organisms included within a...
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