Bio1130 Keywords Final - Microevolution Beneficial mutation...

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Microevolution Beneficial mutation – mutation that increases fitness of the organism, or which promotes traits that are desirable Bottleneck effect – occurs when the effective population size sharply decreases to a small percentage of the original. Chromosomal Inversion – occurs when a single chromosome undergoes breakage and rearrangement within itself Chromosomal translocation – is a chromosomal abnormality caused by rearrangement of parts between nonhomologous chromosomes; occurrence of which is common in cancer Deleterious mutation – has a negative effect on the phenotype, and thus decreases fitness of the organism Ecological species – a set of organisms adapted to a particular set of resources, called a niche, in the environment. Female choice – a concept introduced by Charles Darwin in his 1859 book On the Origin of Species , in which males compete with each other to be chosen by females Fitness – an individual's ability to propagate its genes Fixation – the state when every individual in a population has the same allele at a particular locus Founder effect – is the loss of genetic variation that occurs when a new population is established by a very small number of individuals from a larger population Gene duplication – is any duplication of a region of DNA that contains a gene; it may occur as an error in homologous recombination, a retrotransposition event, or duplication of an entire chromosome Habitat isolation – any of the factors that prevent potentially fertile individuals from mating will reproductively isolate the members of distinct species; the types of barriers that can cause this isolation include, different habitats, physical barriers, and a difference in the time of sexual maturity or flowering Hybrid viability – a post-zygotic barrier that decreases with time, which is a hybrid's capacity to mature into a healthy, fit adult Male competition – in which members of the less limited sex (typically males) compete aggressively among themselves for access to the limiting sex Morphospecies – a population or group of populations that differs morphologically from other populations. Neutral mutation – a mutation that has no effect on fitness;.it is neutral with respect to natural selection Non random mating – disturbing influences on the Hardy-Weinberg principle that states both allele and genotype frequencies in a population remain constant Point mutation – often caused by chemicals or malfunction of DNA replication, exchange a single nucleotide for another; these changes are classified as transitions (most common) or transversions Sickle cell anaemia – is an autosomal recessive genetic blood disorder with overdominance, characterized by red blood cells that assume an abnormal, rigid, sickle shape; life expectancy is shortened
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Bio1130 Keywords Final - Microevolution Beneficial mutation...

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