Bio1130 Practice Questions

Bio1130 Practice Questions - 1. Which of the following does...

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1. Which of the following does not contribute to prokaryotic genetic variability? a. binary fission b. gene transfer by transformation c. mutation d. gene transfer by conjugation 2. Which free-living cells were the earliest contributors to the formation of Earth's oxidizing atmosphere? a. mitochondria b. cyanobacteria c. endosymbionts d. seaweeds e. chloroplasts 3. What is the correct order in the history of life on Earth? a. animals, first prokaryotes, first eukaryotes, land plants, humans b. first prokaryotes, first eukaryotes, animals, land plants, humans c. humans, animals, land plants, first eukaryotes, first prokaryotes d. land plants, first prokaryotes, animals, first eukaryotes, humans 4. Which of these is the most common compound in the cell walls of gram-positive bacteria? a. lipopolysaccharide b. peptidoglycan c. lignin d. cellulose e. protein
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5. An early consequence of the release of oxygen gas by plant and bacterial photosynthesis was to a. make it easier to maintain reduced molecules. b. cause iron in ocean water and terrestrial rocks to rust (oxidize). c. make life on land difficult for aerobic organisms. d. change the atmosphere from oxidizing to reducing. e. prevent the formation of an ozone layer 6. The presence of a single, circular chromosome is characteristic of a. Bacteria only. b. Archaea only. c. both Archaea and Bacteria. d. neither Archaea nor Bacteria. 7. An organism that obtains its energy from sunlight is a(n) a. phototroph. b. heterotroph. c. autotroph. d. chemotroph. 8. Why is the process of nitrogen fixation by prokaryotes essential? a. It removes nitrogen from the soil. b. It allows for the breakdown of complex macromolecules. c. It converts atmospheric nitrogen to a non-toxic form. d. It provides nitrogen sources for plants and animals.
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9. Biologists sometimes divide living organisms into two groups: autotrophs and heterotrophs. How do these two groups differ? a. They use different sources of carbon. b. They differ in the way they generate ATP. c. They use different sources of energy. d. They use different electron acceptors. 10. In transduction, bacterial cells a. replicate DNA molecules. b. make replicate copies of one another. c. take up pieces of DNA through the use of a virus. d. take up pieces of DNA that are released as other cells disintegrate. 11. DNA in prokaryotes is found in a. the nucleoid and plasmids. b. the nucleolus. c. the nucleolus and plasmids. d. plasmids. 12. What organisms are most numerous on Earth? a. archaea b. plants c. prokaryotes d. insects e. eukaryotes
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13. Microbiologists use the Gram stain to aid in identification of bacteria. What is the major difference between Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria? a. presence or absence of muramic acid in the cell wall
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Bio1130 Practice Questions - 1. Which of the following does...

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