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BIO1130 Terminology Lab - Endothermy an organism that...

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Apomorphies - Derived characters within a group; appeared more recently Plesiomorphies - Primitive characters within a group; a characteristic that is present at the base of a tree (cladogram) Synapomorphies - Derived characters shared between groups Symplesiomorphies - Shared primitive characters shared between groups Monophyletic - forms a clade , meaning it consists of all the descendants of a possibly hypothetical closest common ancestor of the members of the group Paraphyletic - consists of all of the descendants of a possibly hypothetical closest common ancestor minus one (usually one) or more monophyletic groups; 'para', namely meaning 'near' or 'alongside’ Polyphyletic - any group other than a monophyletic group or a paraphyletic group Ambiguity - the ability to express more than one interpretation Binary characters – 0, 1 Derived - "advanced"; a trait that is present in an organism, but was absent in the last common ancestor of the group being considered
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Unformatted text preview: Endothermy- an organism that produces heat through internal means, such as muscle shivering or increasing its metabolism Homology – characteristics shared by a set of species because they inherited them from their common ancestor Homoplasy – characteristics shared by a set of species, often because they live in a similar environments, but not present in their common ancestor; often the product of convergent evolution Phylogeny (phylogenetic) - is the study of evolutionary relatedness among groups of organisms Principle of parsimony- is a principle that generally recommends selecting from among competing hypotheses the one that makes the fewest new assumptions; “simpler explanations are, other things being equal, generally better than more complex ones” Taxon – plural, taxa; a name designating a group of organisms included within a category in the Linnaean taxonomic hierarchy Transformations- number of steps...
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