Genomics211 - Genomics and DNA Organization 1 The field of...

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Unformatted text preview: Genomics and DNA Organization - 1 The field of genomics, the mapping of and study an organism's DNA, had its first success in 1995 when Craig Venter and Hamilton Smith completed the sequencing of the Haemophilus influenzae genome using a technique that departed from those in common use at the time. They fragmented the entire Haemophilus chromosome, cloned the fragments randomly into vectors, and then used gene sequencing and bioinformatics techniques to construct the Haemophilus genes along the chromosome. Their immediate goal was to first, determine the size of the genome, and second to identify the genes of this bacterium. Genomics and DNA Organization - 2 Haemophilus influenzae Genome (Color-coded by gene function) We now have complete genomes for dozens of organisms, both prokaryotic and eukaryotic. In this section of Biology 211 we will discuss briefly techniques used to sequence DNA to obtain genome data and a bit about how genome data is helping science better understand life on earth. One of the first things learned by studying genomes of different organisms was how similar much of our DNA is no matter what kind of organism we look at. It also became obvious that the size of an organism or our perception of complexity does not determine the number of genes, just as the number of chromosomes does not. Rice has more genes than humans and the mouse and human genome are very similar in size. Genomics and DNA Organization - 3 Applications of Genomics Data • Genomics is revealing what our genes are, how genes are organized within the genome and how genes are differentially expressed in tissues and in closely related species. • Genomic data tells us the coding regions (reading frames) including introns and exons, promoter and termination and regulatory DNA sequences of genes as well as the RNA "gene" sequences. • We are learning much about the many types, or categories, of DNA found in our cells in addition to the DNA that codes for polypeptides or RNA. • Comparative genomics uses DNA to see how similar and dissimilar organisms are, the genes we have in common as well as genes or DNA sequences that differentiate a species from its relatives and different kinds of organisms from each other. • Genomics is revealing our evolutionary biology similarities and relationships, reinforcing in some cases our previous alignments and in others altering how we have thought about our evolutionary connections. • Using genome differences, scientists are finding gene polymorphisms in population cohorts that may correlate to predicting predisposition for some medical conditions. Genetic variation in genomes is helping tailor specific medical and pharmacological treatments relative to individual gene expression using techniques such as DNA microarrays based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (discussed elsewhere) ....
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Genomics211 - Genomics and DNA Organization 1 The field of...

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