angiorepro213S - Flowering Plant Reproduction 1 Flowers are...

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Flowering Plant Reproduction - 1 Flowers are a part of our human society. We cultivate them for our esthetic pleasure. For a plant, the flower is a reproductive organ, needed for sexual reproduction and maintaining genetic variation from generation to generation. In this unit we will discuss reproduction and development in the group of plants with which we are most familiar, the flowering plants, or angiosperms, classified in the phylum, Anthophyta. (The life histories of the other groups of plants are discussed in the diversity unit.) We will include: 1. The basic classification features of flowering plants 2. The life history pattern (alternation of generations) of plants 3. The flower structures, with reference to life history and sexual reproduction 4. Pollination and sexual reproduction in Angiosperms (flowering plants) 5. Embryo development, 6. Seed maturation and fruit formation in Angiosperms 7. Seed (and fruit) dispersal 8. Germination and seedling "establishment" Reproductive Features of Flowering Plants (Angiosperms) (Terms will make sense later) Reproductive organs are found within a flower The ovule is embedded in sporophyte tissue (the ovary) The gametophyte is greatly reduced and retained within the sporophyte’s sporangia Fertilization is "double" requiring two sperm One sperm with the egg: One sperm with polar nuclei to form a nutritive endosperm Seeds are enclosed within a fruit (the ovary and accessory tissues) The two major groups of flowering plants are the monocots and eudicots, which can be distinguished in the following ways: Monocotyledonae Eudicotyledonae One cotyledon Two cotyledons Leaves with parallel veins Leaf venation palmate or pinnate Sheathing leaf bases Leaves usually have a petiole Scattered vascular bundles Vascular bundles in a ring (cylinder) No true cambium Cambium usually present Roots typically fibrous Taproot Common Monocolpate pollen Tricolpate pollen Flower parts in 3's Flower parts in 5's (4's)
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Flowering Plant Reproduction - 2
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Flowering Plant Reproduction - 3 As we discuss the processes of sexual reproduction and seed development in flowering plants, the phylum, Anthophyta, you will note that many processes are similar to those which occur in animal development, studied in Biology 211 and 212, such as cell division and differentiation. However, in some significant ways plant growth and development is very different from animal growth: In plants, mitosis is restricted to special areas of the embryo and growing plant called meristems. Meristems formed in the early embryo are retained throughout the lifetime of a plant at growing tips. Plant cells do not move and migrate. Cells have fixed positions. Change in plant shape is determined by increases in number of cells and elongation.
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