structureorganization213

structureorganization213 - Plant Structure and Organization...

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Plant Structure and Organization - 1 In our first unit of Biology 213 we will focus on the structure and function of the “higher” plants, in particular the angiosperms, or flowering plants. We will look at how plants “solve” the many “problems” of life in ways that are similar to and in ways that are different from the animals with which you are now familiar. It may be helpful at first to review some of the characteristics of life from the context of how plants approach life and living. Principles of Plant Biology Structure and Support Living organisms have an organized structure, and exhibit increasing levels of complexity from molecules, to cells and tissues, to integrated systems of organs. This is evident in the cellular structure and organization of plants and repeated over and over in the development of shoot and flower buds and root primordia. Energy Needs Living organisms require energy to survive. Virtually all plants do photosynthesis, providing their own chemical energy, which is then stored as carbohydrate fuel. All living organisms are dependent on this photosynthetic product for their energy source. Plants must do cellular respiration, the process that converts the fuel molecules to the energy needed to do cell work, just as all organisms must. These chemical pathways are virtually the same in all organisms.
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Plant Structure and Organization - 2 Dependence on Water All life on earth depends on water. Plants’ metabolic dependence on water equals that of other organisms. Plants have means of conserving water as do animals. Plants use water pressure (turgor) to maintain strength in soft tissues Plants use water pressure to promote elongation and cell growth (increase in cell dimension). Water is the transport medium for plant nutrients throughout the plant body. Reproduction Plants have great reproductive versatility. Many plants reproduce both asexually and sexually. As plants evolved, dispersal via seeds versus spores (single-cell structures) provides an energy head start for establishing new plants as well as protection for the embryonic plant. In addition, plants have evolved means to ensure successful sexual reproduction in the absence of mobility and means of dispersing young to new locations. Growth and Development Living organisms have growth and development. These processes are dependent on the instructions coded in molecules of DNA, the genetic molecule of life. Molecular biology is changing how we know about plant processes just as it is how we know about animals. In particular, the tiny Arabidopsis , often studied in growth and inheritance experiments in the laboratory, is proving to be an excellent genetic tool to look at the molecular events of plant development.
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Plant Structure and Organization - 3 Regulation
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structureorganization213 - Plant Structure and Organization...

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