Tissues213S - Plant Tissues - 1 Although the basic plant...

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Plant Tissues - 1 Although the basic plant organization was presented during our introduction, at this time we are going to look in depth at the structure of the plant body, first at plant tissues and progressing to the shoot and root systems. Plant cells are specialized for certain functions, as are the cells of all multicellular organisms. The cells and tissues of roots, stems and leaves are the result of three developmental processes: growth, morphogenesis and differentiation. Growth consists of cell division and cell enlargement, two processes that result in change in size and form of the plant body. o Cell division in plants occurs in meristems o Cell enlargement follows division, and involves morphogenesis. Morphogenesis describes the particular shape and form a plant takes on during growth, determined by the plane of cell division and cell expansion during growth. Differentiation is the process by which cells specialize for function forming the tissues of the plant. Differentiation in plants is largely determined by cell position communicated from one cell to the next, through positional information signals. Such information determines which genes get expressed for differentiation in cells. The plant body is divided into three tissue systems: ground, dermal and vascular, found in positionally determined locations in roots, stems and leaves. The Plant Tissues 1 . Meristems Meristems are responsible for increase in number of cells. Since meristem is not specialized, it’s not really a "tissue"; the cells that are produced by meristems become the tissues of the plant body. 2 . Surface or Dermal Tissues Function Protection 3 . Vascular Tissues Functions Conduct water and solutes Support and strength for the plant Types of Vascular Tissue Xylem Conducts H 2 O and some minerals from roots upward Phloem Conducts solutes from where located to where needed 4 . Ground or Fundamental Tissues All other cell areas and types, including: Fibers – for support Photosynthetic cells Storage cells "Fill in the spaces" cells
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Plant Tissues - 2 Organization of Tissues Although we will discuss each of the plant tissue types, their constituent cell types, and the meristems from which they are derived, it is useful to first revisit the organization of the three tissue systems in the plant organs that relate to the primary and derivative meristems in the embryo: dermal, ground and vascular. Meristems Plant cell division occurs in meristems. The apical meristems located in the embryo shoot tip (epicotyl) and root tip (radical) are retained throughout the life of the plant, and apical meristems and their derivatives, found in various places of the plant, are responsible for plant growth.
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Plant Tissues - 3 Recall that plant growth occurs along an axis that increases in "length". Growth in length is primary growth, and is produced by primary meristems. The radial pattern of growth: epidermis, ground tissue and vascular tissues, as shown by
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Tissues213S - Plant Tissues - 1 Although the basic plant...

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