cs345-4

# cs345-4 - 1 Extended Conjunctive Queries Unions Arithmetic...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 Extended Conjunctive Queries Unions Arithmetic Negation 2 Containment of Unions of CQ’s ◆ Theorem: P 1 ∪ … ∪ P k ⊆ Q 1 ∪ … ∪ Q n if and only if for each P i there is some Q j such that P i ⊆ Q j . ◆ Proof (if): Obvious. 3 Proof of “Only-If” ◆ Assume P 1 ∪ … ∪ P k ⊆ Q 1 ∪ … ∪ Q n . ◆ Let D be the canonical (frozen) DB for P i . ◆ Since the containment holds, and P i ( D ) includes the frozen head of P i , there must be some Q j such that Q j ( D ) also includes the frozen head of P i . ◆ Thus, P i ⊆ Q j . 4 CQ Contained in Datalog Program ◆ Let Q be a CQ and P a Datalog program. ◆ Each returns a relation for each EDB database D , so it makes sense to ask if Q ⊆ P . ◗ That is, Q ( D ) ⊆ P ( D ) for all D . 5 The Containment Test ◆ Let D be the canonical DB for Q . ◆ Compute P ( D ), and test if it contains the frozen head of Q. ◆ If so, Q ⊆ P ; if not, D is a counterexample. 6 Example Q : p(X,Y) :- a(X,Z) & a(Z,W) & a(W,Y) P : p(X,Y) :- a(X,Y) p(X,Y) :- p(X,Z) & p(Z,Y) ◆ Intuitively: Q = paths of length 3; P = all paths. ◆ Frozen Q : D = {a(x,z), a(z,w), a(w,y)}. 7 Example --- Continued D = {a(x,z), a(z,w), a(w,y)} P : p(X,Y) :- a(X,Y) p(X,Y) :- p(X,Z) & p(Z,Y) ◆ Infer by first rule: p(x,z), p(z,w), p(w,y). ◆ Infer by second rule: p(x,w), p(z,y), p(x,y)....
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cs345-4 - 1 Extended Conjunctive Queries Unions Arithmetic...

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