Muscle System-25

Muscle System-25 - Chapter 25 Gross Anatomy of the Muscular...

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Chapter 25 Gross Anatomy of the Muscular System 1
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l Includes all skeletal muscle tissue that can be controlled voluntarily Muscular system 2
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Classification of Skeletal Muscles 3
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l Muscles can be classified by action ¡ Agonist (prime mover) l Primary responsible for the movement ¡ Antagonist l Opposes the agonists ¡ Synergist l Aids the action of agonists l Fixator Types of Muscles 4
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l Muscles can be identified by origin, insertion and action ¡ Origin = stationary end ¡ Insertion = movable end Origins and Insertions 5
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l Names give clues to muscle characteristics ¡ Location of muscle’s origin and insertion l Sternohyoid ¡ Direction of fibers l Tranverse, oblique, rectus ¡ Number of origins l Biceps, triceps Names of skeletal muscles 6
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Names of skeletal muscles ¡ Size of the muscle l Maximus, minimus ¡ Shape l Deltoid, trapezius ¡ Action l Adductor, flexor ¡ Location of the muscle l Frontalis, orbicularis 7
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Organization of skeletal muscle fibers l Parallel muscle l Convergent muscle l Pennate muscle ¡ Unipennate ¡ Bipennate ¡ Multipennate l Circular muscle (sphincter) 8
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Organization of skeletal muscle fibers 9
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Muscles of the Head and Neck 10
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Head 11
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Muscles of the head and neck ¡ Epicranius muscles l Occipital O: occipital bone I: galea aponeurotic A: pulls the scalp posteriorly l Frontal O: galea aponeurotic I: skin of the eyebrow A: raise the eyebrow 12
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Muscles of the head and neck l Orbicularis oculi ¡ O: frontal and maxillary bones ¡ I: eyelid ¡ A: closes eyes l Corrugator supercilli ¡ O: frontal bone ¡ I: skin of eyebrow ¡ A: draws eyebrow inferiorly and medially 13
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Muscles of the head and neck l Levator labii superioris ¡ O: zigomatic and maxilla bones ¡ I: upper lip ¡ A: raises upper lips l Depressor labii inferioris ¡ O: mandible ¡ I: lower lip ¡ A: pulls lower lip inferiorly 14
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Muscles of the head and neck l Depressor anguli oris ¡ O: mandible ¡ I: angle of mouth ¡ A: pulls corner of mouth down and laterally l Mentalis ¡ O: mandible ¡ I: skin of chin ¡ A: protudes lower lip 15
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Muscles of the head and neck l Zigomatic major and minor ¡ O: zigomatic bone ¡ I: corner the mouth ¡ A: smiling muscle l Risorius ¡ O: masseter ¡ I: angle of the mouth ¡ A: pulls corner of lips laterally 16
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¡ Orbicularis oris l O: maxilla and mandible l I: lips l A: compresses lips ¡ Buccinator l O: maxilla and mandible l I: orbicularis oris l A: compresses the cheek (whistling) Muscles of the head and neck 17
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Muscles of Mastication 18
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l Masseter muscles ¡ O: zigomatic and maxilla bones ¡ I: mandible ¡ A: closes the jaw l Temporalis muscles ¡ O: temporal fossa ¡ I: mandible ¡ A: closes the jaw Muscles of mastication 19
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Muscles of mastication l Medial Pterygoid ¡ O: sphenoid, palatine and maxillary bones ¡ I: mandible ¡ A: elevates mandible, grinding the teeth l Lateral Pterygoid ¡ O: sphenoid ¡ I: mandible ¡ A: protracts jaw, grinding the teeth l Buccinator 20
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Muscle System-25 - Chapter 25 Gross Anatomy of the Muscular...

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