slides01-9

slides01-9 - Local Strati cation Instantiate rules i.e...

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Unformatted text preview: Local Strati cation Instantiate rules; i.e., substitute all possible constants for variables, but reject instantiations that cause some EDB subgoal to be false. 3 Ground atom = atom with no variables. Build dependency graph at the level of ground atoms by instantiating the rules. Whether program + EDB is locally strati ed depends not only on program, but on EDB. Program + EDB is locally strati ed i no negative cycles in dependency graph. Example Win program with boards f1; 2; 3g and moves 1 ! 2, 2 ! 3, and 1 ! 3. 1 2 3 The following three instantiations are the only ones that cannot be ruled out immediately by a false move subgoal: r1: win1 :- move1,2 & NOT win2 r2: win1 :- move1,3 & NOT win3 r3: win2 :- move2,3 & NOT win3 The Dependency Graph win1 , win2 , , win3 move1,2 move1,3 move2,3 The three move ground atoms and win3 are in stratum 0; win2 is in stratum 1, and win1 is in stratum 2. 1 Computing the Locally Strati ed Model Compute locally strati ed  perfect" model bottom-up, deciding on the truth or falsehood of atoms by computing the LFP of each stratum in turn. Example Stratum 0: We nd win3 is false. Stratum 1: That lets us use r3 to infer win2 is true. Stratum2: We then use r2 to infer win1 is true. Stable Models Intuitively, model M is stable" if when you apply the rules to M you get exactly M back. Example Win" rule: winX :- moveX,Y & NOT winY with EDB 1 ! 2, 2 ! 3, 1 ! 3. 1 2 3 M = EDB + fwin1; win2g is stable. The three useful instantiations are r1: win1 :- move1,2 & NOT win2 r2: win1 :- move1,3 & NOT win3 r3: win2 :- move2,3 & NOT win3 M makes only the bodies of r2 and r3 true, letting us infer exactly M . Note you get the EDB facts for free" in this process. Gelfond-Lifschitz Transform Formal notion of applying rules to a model M . 1. Instantiate rules in all possible ways. 2. Delete instantiated rules with a nonnegated EDB subgoal that is not in M or with a false arithmetic subgoal. 3 Remember, EDB is part of M . 2 3. Delete instantiated rules with a subgoal NOT px, where px is in M . 3 In 3 and 4, p can be either EDB or IDB. 4. Delete any subgoal NOT px if px is not in M. 5. Delete any EDB subgoal in M and any true arithmetic subgoal. What's left? Rules with zero or more nonnegated, relational subgoals with IDB predicates. 3 Note that a rule with empty body is an assertion that the head is true. GLM  = EDB + result of inferring IDB with the remaining rules. Bottom Line on GL Transform You can use negative EDB or IDB facts in M i.e., atoms missing from M  to help infer facts, and you use positive EDB facts, but you don't use the positive IDB facts in M unless you derive them from other facts. Formal De nition of Stable Models If GLM  = M , then M is stable. The stable semantics" for a program + EDB is the unique stable model with that EDB, if there is one. 3 Sometimes it is interesting to look at the set of stable models, as well. Example M = fmove1; 2, move1; 3, move2; 3, win1, win2g formal version of previous example. After step 2: r1: win1 :- move1,2 & NOT win2 r2: win1 :- move1,3 & NOT win3 r3: win2 :- move2,3 & NOT win3 After step 3: r2: win1 :- move1,3 & NOT win3 r3: win2 :- move2,3 & NOT win3 After step 4: 3 r2: win1 :- move1,3 r3: win2 :- move2,3 After step 5: r2: win1 :r3: win2 :Thus, GLM  = fwin1; win2g + EDB = M. M is a stable model. Example Consider the program": pX :- pX ; is the only stable model. Why? The only instantiated rules are of the form pa :- pa. 3 The GL transform doesn't a ect these, no matter what M is. 3 Thus, there is no way to infer any pa. Example For any Datalog program without negation, the unique LFP is the only stable model. Why? To test whether M is stable, we compute GLM . 3 Since there is no negation in bodies, the surviving instantiated rules are exactly the ones with true EDB subgoals. 3 Thus, GL infers exactly the LFP for the EDB portion of M , regardless of what M is. 3 If we start with the LFP, we infer it, so that model is stable; if we start with another model, we still infer the LFP, so that model is not stable. Propositional Stable Models It is often useful to nd propositional examples. No EDB in propositional logic. Thus, only steps 3 and 4, plus the nal inference, are relevant for the GL transform. 4 Example p :- q; q :- NOT r; r :- s; s :- NOT p M = fp; qg. After step 3: p :- q; q :- NOT r; r :- s After step 4: p :- q; q :- ; r :- s Inference: GLM  = fp; qg = M . Multiple Stable Models Possible Notice that fr; sg is also a stable model of the above rules. 5 ...
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