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The Human Body Orientation

The Human Body Orientation - The Human Body An Orientation...

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The Human Body: An Orientation P A R T A
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Overview of Anatomy and Physiology ¡ Anatomy – the study of the structure of  body parts and their relationships to one  another l Gross or macroscopic l Microscopic l Developmental ¡ Physiology – the study of the function of  the body parts
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Gross Anatomy ¡ Regional – study of the structures in one  specific part of the body l Neck, head, etc  ¡ Systemic – gross anatomy of the system  of the body ¡ Surface – study of internal structures as  they relate to the overlying skin
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Microscopic Anatomy ¡ Cytology – study of the cell ¡ Histology – study of tissues
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Developmental Anatomy ¡ Study of the changes in form from  conception to physical maturity l Embryology – study of developmental  changes of the body before birth
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Specialized Branches of Anatomy ¡ Pathological anatomy – study of  structural changes caused by disease ¡ Radiographic anatomy – study of internal  structures visualized by specialized  scanning procedures such as X-ray, MRI,  and CT scans ¡ Molecular biology – study of anatomical  structures at a subcellular level
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Physiology ¡ Systemic physiology –study of the  operation of specific organ systems l Renal – kidney function l Neurophysiology – workings of the  nervous system l Cardiovascular – operation of the heart  and blood vessels ¡ Cell physiology ¡ Pathological physiology
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Physiology ¡ Understanding physiology also requires a  knowledge of physics, which explains  l electrical currents l blood pressure l the way muscle uses bone for  movement
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Principle of Complementarity ¡ Anatomy and physiology are closely  related  ¡ What a structure can do depends on its  specific form l Because enamel is a very hard  structure we can masticate hard things 
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10 1 2 4 5 6 3 Smooth muscle cell Molecules Atoms Smooth muscle tissue Epithelial tissue Heart Blood vessels Smooth muscle tissue Connective tissue Blood vessel (organ) Cardiovascular system Cellular level Cells are made up of molecules. Tissue level Tissues consist of similar types of cells. Organ level Organs are made up of different types of tissues. Organ system level Organ systems consist of different organs that work together closely. Organismal level The human organism is made up of many organ systems. Chemical level Atoms combine to form molecules. Figure 1.1 Levels of Structural Organization
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Levels of Structural Organization ¡ Chemical – atoms combined to form  molecules ¡ Cellular – cells are made of molecules ¡ Tissue –similar types of cells working  together ¡ Organ – are made of two or more tissues
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Levels of Structural Organization ¡ Organ system – consists of different  organs that work closely together ¡ Organism – made up of the organ  systems. It is the highest level of  organization
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