The Human Body Orientation

The Human Body Orientation - The Human Body: An Orientation...

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Unformatted text preview: The Human Body: An Orientation A R T A Overview of Anatomy and Physiology Anatomy the study of the structure of body parts and their relationships to one another l Gross or macroscopic l Microscopic l Developmental Physiology the study of the function of the body parts Gross Anatomy Regional study of the structures in one specific part of the body l Neck, head, etc Systemic gross anatomy of the system of the body Surface study of internal structures as they relate to the overlying skin Microscopic Anatomy Cytology study of the cell Histology study of tissues Developmental Anatomy Study of the changes in form from conception to physical maturity l Embryology study of developmental changes of the body before birth Specialized Branches of Anatomy Pathological anatomy study of structural changes caused by disease Radiographic anatomy study of internal structures visualized by specialized scanning procedures such as X-ray, MRI, and CT scans Molecular biology study of anatomical structures at a subcellular level Physiology Systemic physiology study of the operation of specific organ systems l Renal kidney function l Neurophysiology workings of the nervous system l Cardiovascular operation of the heart and blood vessels Cell physiology Pathological physiology Physiology Understanding physiology also requires a knowledge of physics, which explains l electrical currents l blood pressure l the way muscle uses bone for movement Principle of Complementarity Anatomy and physiology are closely related What a structure can do depends on its specific form l Because enamel is a very hard structure we can masticate hard things 10 1 2 4 5 6 3 Smooth muscle cell Molecules Atoms Smooth muscle tissue Epithelial tissue Heart Blood vessels Smooth muscle tissue Connective tissue Blood vessel (organ) Cardiovascular system Cellular level Cells are made up of molecules. Tissue level Tissues consist of similar types of cells. Organ level Organs are made up of different types of tissues. Organ system level Organ systems consist of different organs that work together closely. Organismal level The human organism is made up of many organ systems. Chemical level Atoms combine to form molecules. Figure 1.1 Levels of Structural Organization Levels of Structural Organization Chemical atoms combined to form molecules Cellular cells are made of molecules Tissue similar types of cells working together Organ are made of two or more tissues Levels of Structural Organization Organ system consists of different organs that work closely together Organism made up of the organ systems. It is the highest level of organization Integumentary System...
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This note was uploaded on 01/06/2012 for the course BIOL 2401 taught by Professor Elainefanin during the Fall '11 term at Collins.

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The Human Body Orientation - The Human Body: An Orientation...

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