The Muscular System

The Muscular System - The muscular system PARTA 1...

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The muscular system PART A 1
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Interactions of Skeletal Muscles ¡ Skeletal muscles work together or in  opposition ¡ Muscles only pull (never push) ¡ As muscles shorten, the insertion generally  moves toward the origin ¡ Whatever a muscle (or group of muscles)  does, another muscle (or group) “undoes 2
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Muscle Classification: Functional Groups ¡ Prime movers – provide the major force for  producing a specific movement ¡ Antagonists – oppose or reverse a particular  movement ¡ Synergists l Add force to a movement l Reduce undesirable or unnecessary  movement 3
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Muscle Classification: Functional Groups ¡ Fixators – synergists that immobilize a bone  or muscle’s origin 4
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Names of skeletal muscles ¡ Names give clues to muscle characteristics l Location: femoris, temporalis, etc l Fascicle organization: rectus, oblique, etc l Relative position: profundus, superficialis,  etc l Structure: biceps, triceps, etc 5
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Names of skeletal muscles l Size: maximus, longus, etc l Shape: trapezius, deltoid, etc l Origin and insertion: sternocleidomastoid,  etc l Action: flexor, pronator, etc 6
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Organization of skeletal muscle fibers ¡ Parallel   muscle ¡ Convergent  muscle ¡ Pennate  muscle l Unipennate l Bipennate l Multipennate ¡ Circula muscle (sphincter) ¡ Fusiform 7
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Arrangement of Fascicles 8
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Muscles of the Head 9
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Muscles of the Head 10
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Muscles of the Head ¡ Facial expression muscles l Orbicularis oris ¡ O: maxilla and mandible ¡ I: lips ¡ A: compresses lips l Buccinator ¡ O: maxilla and mandible ¡ I: orbicularis oris ¡ A: compresses the cheek (whistling) 11
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Muscles of the Head l Occipitofrontalis muscles ¡ Occipital l O: occipital bone l I: galea aponeurotic l A: pulls the scalp posteriorly ¡ Frontalis l O: galea aponeurotic l I: skin of the eyebrow l A: raise the eyebrow 12
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Muscles of the Head ¡ Orbicularis oculi l O: frontal and maxillary bones l I: eyelid l A: closes eyes ¡ Corrugator supercilli l O: frontal bone l I: skin of eyebrow l A: draws eyebrow inferiorly and medially 13
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Muscles of the Head ¡ Levator labii superioris l O: zigomatic and maxilla bone l I: upper lip l A: raises upper lips ¡ Depressor labii inferioris l O: mandible l I: lower lip l A: pulls lower lip inferiorly 14
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Muscles of the Head ¡ Depressor anguli oris l O: mandible l I: angle of mouth l A: pulls corner of mouth down and laterally ¡ Mentalis l O: mandible l I: skin of chin l A: protudes lower lip 15
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Muscles of the Head ¡ Zigomatic major and minor l O: zigomatic bone l I: corner the mouth l A: smiling muscle ¡ Risorius l O: masseter l I: angle of the mouth l A: pulls corner of lips laterally 16
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Muscles of Mastication 17
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Muscles of Mastication 18
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The Muscular System - The muscular system PARTA 1...

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