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The Peripheral Nervous System and Reflexes

The Peripheral Nervous System and Reflexes - The Peripheral...

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The Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) P A R T A
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Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) ¡ PNS – all neural structures outside the  brain and spinal cord ¡ Includes sensory receptors, peripheral  nerves, associated ganglia, and motor  endings ¡ Provides links to and from the external  environment
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PNS in the Nervous System Figure 13.1
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Sensory Receptors ¡ Structures specialized to respond to  stimuli ¡ Activation of sensory receptors results in  depolarizations that trigger impulses to  the CNS ¡ The realization of these stimuli, sensation  and perception, occur in the brain
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Receptor Classification by Stimulus Type ¡ Mechanoreceptors  – respond to touch,  pressure, vibration, stretch, and itch ¡ Thermoreceptors  – sensitive to changes  in temperature ¡ Photoreceptors  – respond to light  energy (e.g., retina) ¡ Chemoreceptors  – respond to  chemicals (e.g., smell, taste, changes in  blood chemistry) ¡ Nociceptors  – sensitive to pain-causing  stimuli
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Receptor Class by Location: Exteroceptors ¡ Respond to stimuli arising outside the  body ¡ Found near the body surface ¡ Sensitive to touch, pressure, pain, and  temperature ¡ Include the special sense organs
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Receptor Class by Location: Interoceptors ¡ Respond to stimuli arising within the  body ¡ Found in internal viscera and blood  vessels ¡ Sensitive to chemical changes, stretch,  and temperature changes
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Receptor Class by Location: Proprioceptors ¡ Respond to degree of stretch of the  organs they occupy ¡ Found in skeletal muscles, tendons,  joints, ligaments, and connective tissue  coverings of bones and muscles ¡ Constantly “advise” the brain of one’s  movements
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¡ Receptors are structurally classified as either  simple or complex ¡ Most receptors are  simple  and include  encapsulated  and  unencapsulated  varieties ¡ Complex  receptors are  special sense   organs Receptor Classification by Structural Complexity
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Simple Receptors: Unencapsulated ¡ Free dendritic  nerve endings l Respond chiefly to temperature and  pain ¡ Merkel (tactile) discs ¡ Hair follicle receptors
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Simple Receptors: Encapsulated ¡ Meissner’s corpuscles  (tactile  corpuscles)  ¡ Pacinian corpuscles  (lamellated  corpuscles) ¡ Muscle spindles Golgi tendon  organs,  and  Ruffini’s corpuscles ¡ Joint kinesthetic  receptors
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Unencapsulated Receptors Table 13.1.1
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Simple Receptors:Encapsulated Table 13.1.2
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From Sensation to Perception ¡ Sensation is the awareness of changes  in the internal and external environment ¡ Perception is the conscious interpretation  of those stimuli
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Organization of the Somatosensory System ¡ Input comes from exteroceptors,  proprioceptors, and interoceptors ¡ The three main levels of neural  integration in the somatosensory system  are: l
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