Blood - Blood Overview of Blood Circulation Blood leaves...

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Blood
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Overview of Blood Circulation n Blood leaves the heart via arteries that branch repeatedly until they become capillaries n Oxygen (O2) and nutrients diffuse across capillary walls and enter tissues n Carbon dioxide (CO2) and wastes move from tissues into the blood
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Overview of Blood Circulation n Oxygen-deficient blood leaves the capillaries and flows in veins to the heart n This blood flows to the lungs where it releases CO2 and picks up O2 n The oxygen-rich blood returns to the heart
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Composition of Blood n Blood is a connective fluid tissue n It is composed of liquid plasma and formed elements n Formed elements include: ¨ Erythrocytes, or red blood cells (RBCs) ¨ Leukocytes, or white blood cells (WBCs) ¨ Platelets n Hematocrit – the percentage of RBCs out of the total blood volume
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Components of Whole Blood
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Physical Characteristics and Volume n Blood is a sticky, opaque fluid with a metallic taste n Color varies from scarlet to dark red n The pH of blood is 7.35–7.45 n Temperature is 38C n Blood accounts for approximately 8% of body weight n Average volume: 5–6 L for males, and 4–5 L for females
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Functions of Blood n Blood performs a number of functions dealing with: ¨ Substance distribution ¨ Regulation of blood levels of particular substances ¨ Body protection
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Distribution n Blood transports: ¨ Oxygen from the lungs and nutrients from the digestive tract ¨ Metabolic wastes from cells to the lungs and kidneys for elimination ¨ Hormones from endocrine glands to target organs
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Regulation n Blood maintains: ¨ Appropriate body temperature by absorbing and distributing heat ¨ Normal pH in body tissues using buffer systems ¨ Adequate fluid volume in the circulatory system
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Protection n Blood prevents blood loss by: ¨ Activating plasma proteins and platelets ¨ Initiating clot formation when a vessel is broken n Blood prevents infection by: ¨ Activating complement proteins ¨ Activating WBCs to defend the body against foreign invaders
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Blood Plasma n Blood plasma contains over 100 solutes, including: ¨ Proteins – albumin, globulins, clotting proteins, and others ¨ Lactic acid, urea, creatinine ¨ Organic nutrients – glucose, carbohydrates, amino acids ¨ Electrolytes – sodium, potassium, calcium, chloride, bicarbonate ¨ Respiratory gases – oxygen and carbon dioxide
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Formed Elements n Erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets make up the formed elements ¨ Only WBCs are complete cells ¨ RBCs have no nuclei or organelles, and platelets are just cell fragments n Most formed elements survive in the bloodstream for only a few days n Most blood cells do not divide but are renewed by cells in bone marrow
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Components of Whole Blood
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Erythrocytes (RBCs) n Biconcave discs, anucleate, essentially no organelles n Filled with hemoglobin (Hb), a protein that functions in gas transport n Contain the plasma membrane protein spectrin and other proteins that: ¨ Give erythrocytes their flexibility ¨ Allow them to change shape as necessary
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Erythrocytes (RBCs)
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Blood - Blood Overview of Blood Circulation Blood leaves...

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