Chapter 27

Chapter 27 - Lab Chapter 27 Functional Anatomy of the...

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1 Lab Chapter 27 Functional Anatomy of the Endocrine Glands
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2 Major Endocrine Organs Figure 16.1
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3 Hormones ¢ Hormones – chemical substances secreted by cells into the extracellular fluids l Regulate the metabolic function of other cells ¢ The precise response depends on the type of the target cell
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4 Target Cell Specificity ¢ Hormones circulate to all tissues but only activate cells referred to as target cells ¢ Target cells must have specific receptors to which the hormone binds
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5 Gross Anatomy -Hypophysis ¢ Pituitary gland – two-lobed organ that secretes nine major hormones ¢ Neurohypophysis – posterior lobe (neural tissue) and the infundibulum l Receives, stores, and releases hormones from the hypothalamus ¢ Adenohypophysis – anterior lobe, made up of glandular tissue l Synthesizes and secretes a number of hormones
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7 Pituitary (Hypophysis) Figure 16.6
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8 ¢ There is a vascular connection, the hypophyseal portal system, consisting of: l The primary capillary plexus l The hypophyseal portal veins l The secondary capillary plexus Pituitary-Anterior Lobe
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9 Adenophypophyseal Hormones ¢ The six hormones of the adenohypophysis: l Abbreviated as GH, TSH, ACTH, FSH, LH, and PRL
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10 Activity of the Adenophypophysis ¢ The hypothalamus sends a chemical stimulus to the anterior pituitary l Releasing hormones stimulate the synthesis and release of hormones l Inhibiting hormones shut off the synthesis and release of hormones
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11 Activity of the Adenophypophysis ¢ The tropic hormones l Stimulates an endocrine gland instead of a target organ. They are: l Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) l Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) l Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) l Luteinizing hormone (LH)
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12 Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (Thyrotropin) ¢ Stimulates the normal development and secretory activity of the thyroid ¢ Triggered by hypothalamic peptide thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)
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13 Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (Corticotropin) ¢ Stimulates the adrenal cortex to release corticosteroids ¢ Triggered by hypothalamic corticotropin- releasing hormone (CRH) in a daily rhythm
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14 Gonadotropins ¢ Gonadotropins – follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) l Regulate the function of the ovaries and testes l FSH stimulates gamete (egg or sperm) production l Triggered by the hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)
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15 Functions of Gonadotropins ¢ In females l LH promotes synthesis and release of estrogens and progesterone ¢ In males l LH stimulates synthesis of testosterone by the testes
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This note was uploaded on 01/06/2012 for the course BIOL 2402 taught by Professor Elainefanin during the Fall '11 term at Collins.

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Chapter 27 - Lab Chapter 27 Functional Anatomy of the...

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