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The Heart - The Heart PART A Heart Anatomy n n...

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The Heart P A R T A
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Heart Anatomy n Approximately the size of your fist n Location ¨ Superior surface of diaphragm ¨ Left of the midline ¨ Anterior to the vertebral column, posterior to the sternum
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Heart Anatomy
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Coverings of the Heart: Anatomy n Pericardium – a double-walled sac around the heart composed of: ¨ A superficial fibrous pericardium ¨ A deep two-layer serous pericardium n The parietal layer lines the internal surface of the fibrous pericardium n The visceral layer or epicardium lines the surface of the heart n They are separated by the fluid-filled pericardial cavity
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Coverings of the Heart: Physiology n The pericardium: ¨ Protects and anchors the heart ¨ Prevents overfilling of the heart with blood ¨ Allows for the heart to work in a relatively friction-free environment
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Pericardial Layers of the Heart
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Heart Wall n Epicardium – visceral layer of the serous pericardium n Myocardium – cardiac muscle layer forming the bulk of the heart n Fibrous skeleton of the heart – crisscrossing, interlacing layer of connective tissue n Endocardium – endothelial layer of the inner myocardial surface
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Cardiac Muscle Bundles
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External Heart: Major Vessels of the Heart (Anterior View) n Vessels returning blood to the heart include: ¨ Superior and inferior vena cava ¨ Right and left pulmonary veins n Vessels conveying blood away from the heart: ¨ Pulmonary trunk, which splits into right and left pulmonary arteries ¨ Ascending aorta (three branches) – brachiocephalic, left common carotid, and subclavian arteries
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(b) Brachiocephalic trunk Superior vena cava Right pulmonary artery Ascending aorta Pulmonary trunk Right pulmonary veins Right atrium Right coronary artery (in coronary sulcus) Anterior cardiac vein Right ventricle Marginal artery Small cardiac vein Inferior vena cava Left common carotid artery Left subclavian artery Aortic arch Ligamentum arteriosum Left pulmonary artery Left atrium Auricle Circumflex artery Left coronary artery (in coronary sulcus) Anterior interventricular artery (in anterior interventricular sulcus) Great cardiac vein Apex Left pulmonary veins Left ventricle
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External Heart: Arteries that Supply the Heart n Coronary circulation is the functional blood supply to the heart muscle itself n Collateral routes ensure blood delivery to heart even if major vessels are occluded
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External Heart: Arteries that Supply the Heart n Right coronary artery (in atrioventricular groove) ¨ Supplies n Right atrium n Portions of both ventricles n SA and AV nodes ¨ Branches n Marginal artery n Posterior interventricular artery
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External Heart: Arteries that Supply the Heart n Left coronary artery ¨ Supply n Left atrium n Portions of both ventricles ¨ Branches n Circumflex n Anterior interventricular
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Arterial Coronary Circulation
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External Heart: Veins that Drain the Heart n Veins that empty in the coronary sinus ¨ Great cardiac vein ¨ Posterior cardiac vein ¨ Middle cardiac vein ¨ Small cardiac vein n Vein that empty into the right atrium ¨ Anterior cardiac vein
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Venous Coronary Circulation
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