The Reproductive System

The Reproductive System - 4/30/2009 Reproductive System The...

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4/30/2009 1 The Reproductive System P A R T A Reproductive System ± Primary sex organs (gonads) – testes in males, ovaries in females ± Gonads produce sex cells called gametes and secrete sex hormones ± Accessory reproductive organs – ducts, glands, and external genitalia ± Sex hormones – androgens (males), and estrogens and progesterone (females) Reproductive System ± Sex hormones play roles in: ² The development and function of the reproductive organs ² Sexual behavior and drives ² The growth and development of many other organs and tissues Male Reproductive System ± The male gonads (testes) produce sperm and lie within the scrotum ± Sperm are delivered to the exterior through a system of ducts: epididymis, ductus deferens, ejaculatory duct, and the urethra ± Accessory sex glands: ² Empty their secretions into the ducts during ejaculation ² Include the seminal vesicles, prostate gland, and bulbourethral glands Male Reproductive System Figure 27.1 The Scrotum ± Sac of skin and superficial fascia that hangs outside the abdominopelvic cavity at the root of the penis ± Contains paired testicles separated by a midline septum ± Its external positioning keeps the testes 3 ° C lower than core body temperature (needed for sperm production)
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4/30/2009 2 The Scrotum ± Intrascrotal temperature is kept constant by two sets of muscles: ² Dartos – smooth muscle that wrinkles scrotal skin ² Cremaster – bands of skeletal muscle that elevate the testes The Scrotum Figure 27.2 The Testes ± Each testis is surrounded by two tunics: ² The tunica vaginalis, derived from peritoneum ² The tunica albuginea, the fibrous capsule of the testis ± Septa divide the testis into 250-300 lobules, each containing 1-4 seminiferous tubules The Testes ± Seminiferous tubules: ² Produce the sperm ² Converge to form the tubulus rectus ± The straight tubulus rectus conveys sperm to the rete testis The Testes ± From the rete testis, the sperm: ² Leave the testis via efferent ductules ² Enter the epididymis ± Surrounding the seminiferous tubules are interstitial cells that produce androgens The Testes ± Testicular arteries branch from the abdominal aorta and supply the testes ± Testicular veins arise from the pampiniform plexus ± Spermatic cord – encloses PNS and SNS nerve fibers, blood vessels, and lymphatics that supply the testes
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4/30/2009 3 The Testes The Penis ± A copulatory organ designed to deliver sperm into the female reproductive tract ± Consists of an attached root and a free shaft that ends in the glans penis ± Prepuce, or foreskin – cuff of skin covering the distal end of the penis ² Circumcision – surgical removal of the foreskin after birth The Penis ± Internal penis – the urethra and three cylindrical bodies of erectile tissue ± Erectile tissue – spongy network of connective tissue and smooth muscle riddled with vascular spaces The Penis ± Erection – during sexual excitement, the erectile tissue fills with blood causing the penis to enlarge and become rigid ±
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The Reproductive System - 4/30/2009 Reproductive System The...

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