The Respiratory System

The Respiratory System - The Respiratory System PA RT A...

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The Respiratory System P A R T A
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Respiratory System n Consists of the respiratory and conducting zones n Respiratory zone: ¨ Site of gas exchange ¨ Consists of respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, and alveoli
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Respiratory System n Conducting zone: ¨ Conduits for air to reach the sites of gas exchange ¨ Includes all other respiratory structures n From nose to terminal bronchioles ¨ Respiratory muscles – diaphragm and other muscles that promote ventilation
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Respiratory System
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Major Functions of the Respiratory System n To supply the body with oxygen and dispose of carbon dioxide n Respiration – four distinct processes must happen ¨ Pulmonary ventilation – moving air into and out of the lungs ¨ External respiration – gas exchange between the lungs and the blood
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Major Functions of the Respiratory System ¨ Transport – transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the lungs and tissues ¨ Internal respiration – gas exchange between systemic blood vessels and tissues
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Function of the Nose n The only externally visible part of the respiratory system that functions by: ¨ Providing an airway for respiration ¨ Moistening and warming the entering air ¨ Filtering inspired air and cleaning it of foreign matter ¨ Serving as a resonating chamber for speech ¨ Housing the olfactory receptors
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Structure of the Nose n Nose is divided into two regions: ¨ External nose, including the root, bridge, dorsum nasi, and apex ¨ Internal nasal cavity n Philtrum – a shallow vertical groove inferior to the apex n The external nares (nostrils) are bounded laterally by the alae
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Structure of the Nose
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Structure of the Nose
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Nasal Cavity n Lies in and posterior to the external nose n Is divided by a midline nasal septum n Opens posteriorly into the nasal pharynx via internal nares n The ethmoid and sphenoid bones form the roof n The floor is formed by the hard and soft palates
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Nasal Cavity n Vestibule – nasal cavity superior to the nares ¨ Vibrissae – hairs that filter coarse particles from inspired air n Olfactory mucosa ¨ Lines the superior nasal cavity ¨ Contains smell receptors
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Nasal Cavity n Respiratory mucosa ¨ Lines the balance of the nasal cavity ¨ Glands secrete mucus containing lysozyme and defensins to help destroy bacteria
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Nasal Cavity
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Nasal Cavity n Inspired air is: ¨ Humidified by the high water content in the nasal cavity ¨ Warmed by rich plexuses of capillaries n Ciliated mucosal cells remove contaminated mucus
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Nasal Cavity n Superior, medial, and inferior conchae: ¨ Protrude medially from the lateral walls ¨ Increase mucosal area ¨ Enhance air turbulence and help filter air n Sensitive mucosa triggers sneezing when stimulated by irritating particles
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Functions of the Nasal Mucosa and Conchae n During inhalation the conchae and nasal mucosa: ¨ Filter, heat, and moisten air n During exhalation these structures: ¨ Reclaim heat and moisture ¨ Minimize heat and moisture loss
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Paranasal Sinuses n Sinuses in bones that surround the nasal cavity n Sinuses lighten the skull and help to warm and moisten the air
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This note was uploaded on 01/06/2012 for the course BIOL 2402 taught by Professor Elainefanin during the Fall '11 term at Collins.

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The Respiratory System - The Respiratory System PA RT A...

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