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The Urinary System

The Urinary System - The Urinary System PART A 1 Kidney...

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The Urinary System P A R T A 1
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Kidney Functions n Filter 200 liters of blood daily, allowing toxins, metabolic wastes, and excess ions to leave the body in urine n Regulate volume and chemical makeup of the blood n Maintain the proper balance between water and salts, and acids and bases 2
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Other Renal Functions n Gluconeogenesis during prolonged fasting n Production of renin to help regulate blood pressure and erythropoietin to stimulate RBC production n Activation of vitamin D 3
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Other Urinary System Organs n Urinary bladder – provides a temporary storage reservoir for urine n Paired ureters – transport urine from the kidneys to the bladder n Urethra – transports urine from the bladder out of the body 4
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Urinary System Organs 5
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Kidney Location and External Anatomy n The kidneys lie in a retroperitoneal position in the superior lumbar region n The right kidney is lower than the left because it is crowded by the liver n The lateral surface is convex; the medial surface is concave n The renal hilus leads to the renal sinus n Ureters, renal blood vessels, lymphatics, and nerves enter and exit at the hilus 6
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Layers of Tissue Supporting the Kidney n Renal capsule – fibrous capsule that surrounds the kidney n Adipose capsule – cushions the kidney and helps attach it to the body wall n Renal fascia – outer layer of dense fibrous connective tissue that anchors the kidney 7
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Kidney Location and External Anatomy 8
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Internal Anatomy (Frontal Section) n Cortex – the light colored, outer region n Medulla – exhibits cone-shaped medullary (renal) pyramids separated by columns ¨ The medullary pyramid and its surrounding cortex constitute a lobe n Base n Apex or papilla n Minor calyces- collect the urine from the papilla 9
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Internal Anatomy n Major calyces ¨ Receive the urine from the minor calyces n Renal pelvis ¨ Funnel shaped tube that collect urine from the major calyces n Renal sinus n Urine flows through the pelvis and ureters to the bladder 10
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Internal Anatomy 11
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Blood and Nerve Supply n Approximately one-fourth (1200 ml) of systemic cardiac output flows through the kidneys each minute n The nerve supply is via the renal plexus 12
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Renal Vascular Pathway 13
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The Nephron n Nephrons are the structural and functional units that form urine, consisting of: ¨ Glomerulus – a tuft of capillaries associated with a renal tubule ¨ Glomerular (Bowman’s) capsule – blind, cup-shaped end of a renal tubule that completely surrounds the glomerulus 14
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The Nephron n Renal corpuscle – the glomerulus and its Bowman’s capsule n Glomerular endothelium – fenestrated epithelium that allows solute-rich, virtually protein-free filtrate to pass from the blood into the glomerular capsule ¨ Renal tubules 15
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The Nephron 16
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Anatomy of the Glomerular Capsule n The external parietal layer is a structural layer n The visceral layer consists of modified, branching epithelial podocytes ¨ Extensions of the octopus-like podocytes terminate in foot processes n Filtration slits – openings between the foot processes that allow filtrate to pass into the capsular space 17
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