Biol 1406 Ch 2-4 Review

Biol 1406 Ch 2-4 Review - Review Sheet for Exam I ...

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Unformatted text preview: Review Sheet for Exam I Chemical Basis of Life What are the four elements that are the most important to humans? How much of the human body is composed of each of these four elements? What are some examples of trace elements? What are the three subatomic particles? Which primarily contribute to the mass of atoms? What does the atomic number of an element tell you? Atoms that lose or gain electrons are called what? Atoms that lose or gain neutrons are called what? Know how potential energy differs according to electron shell. Be comfortable with knowing the definition and difference between the following terms: Electron shell, Valence shell, Orbital. How many electrons can be housed in each shell? How many can be housed in one orbital? Know the different types of chemical bonds along with the relative energy stored in each. How can you identify the different bonds based upon their structural formulas on paper? Know how to determine what type of bond will occur between two elements based upon a difference in electronegativity. Know how to determine if an atom involved in an ionic bond will become a cation or an anion. Water Know the four properties of water along with what chemical characteristic of water contributes to these properties. What is the difference between cohesion and adhesion? Know how to determine how many calories are required to change the temperature of a certain amount of water. Be comfortable using the terms solute, solvent and solution. How does water act as a universal solvent in the presence of charged atoms or molecules? Be able to determine if a molecule is hydrophobic or hydrophilic based upon its charge. Be able to identify compounds that act as acids or bases based upon their effect on the chemical equation that represents the dissociation of water molecules. Additionally, be able to determine if a substance is an acid or a base based upon relative H concentration. Know how to determine pH if given H concentration. What is a buffer? How do you identify something that is a greater buffer than something else if given data/a graph? Carbon Know how to identify a carbon molecule as either tetrahedral in shape or “flat” based upon the bonds found within it. Know the different ways in which carbon ­containing chains/molecules can orient themselves. Know what a hydrocarbon is as well as its likelihood to interact with a molecule of water. Know how to identify the different types of isomers What are the different functional groups? What are unique properties exclusive to each? Where/how are they used? What is their relative affinity for water? ...
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