Biol 1406 Ch 12, 13, 16, 17 PS Summer 2010

Biol 1406 Ch 12, 13, 16, 17 PS Summer 2010 -...

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Unformatted text preview: Ch
12,
13,
16,
17
Problem
Set
 
 1.

Please
state
in
what
stage
(G1,
S,
G2,
M)
each
of
the
following
events
occurs:
 
 i)

The
genetic
material
of
the
cell
is
replicated:
 
 ii)

The
cell
is
not
prepared
to
divide,
and
so
proceeds
from
this
stage
to
G0:
 
 iii)
The
replicated
genetic
material
is
divided
into
two
daughter
cells:
 
 2.

In
the
following
statements
please
state
what
kind
of
external
signal
is
causing
 the
cells
to
either
divide,
or
to
stop
dividing.
 
 i)

A
cell
from
your
liver
somehow
manages
to
detach
from
the
organ
and
slip
into
 the
bloodstream,
where
it
promptly
undergoes
programmed
cell
death
(apoptosis).
 
 
 ii)

You
place
a
collection
of
cells
in
a
petri
dish.

The
cells
begin
growing
towards
the
 edges
of
the
dish.

When
all
of
the
empty
space
in
the
dish
has
been
occupied,
the
 cells
stop
growing/dividing.
 
 
 iii)

A
tumor
functions
by
sending
out
proteins
to
neighboring
blood
vessels.

These
 proteins
cause
the
cells
of
the
blood
vessels
to
divide,
which
in
turn
causes
the
blood
 vessels
to
grow
towards
the
tumor.
 
 
 3.

For
the
following
pictures,
please
determine
if
the
cells
shown
are
undergoing
 Mitosis
or
Meiosis.

Additionally,
state
what
stage
of
cellular
division
they
are
 currently
in.

Furthermore,
state
one
key
aspect
of
the
type
of
division/the
 particular
stage
that
allowed
you
to
arrive
at
your
answer.

For
example:

If
there
is
 a
specific
structure/DNA
content
only
found
in
Metaphase
of
Mitosis.
 
 i)

 
 
 
 
 
 
 ii)

 
 
 
 
 
 iii)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 v)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 iv)
 
 vi)
 
 
 vii)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 ix)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 viii)
 
 x)
 
 
 4.

Please
fill
in
the
chart
comparing
Mitosis
and
Meiosis.
 
 
 M ito sis
 M e io sis
 Number
of
cells
produced
 
 
 when
process
completed
 Number
of
rounds
of
 
 
 division
to
process
 completion
 Genetic
diversity
of
 
 
 daughter
cells
 Number
of
daughter
cells
 
 
 produced
 Sets
of
chromosomes
in
 
 
 daughter
cells
 Cell
type
that
the
process
 
 
 occurs
in
 
 
 5.

Please
give
a
brief
description
of
the
function
or
functions
of
the
following
 enzymes.

Additionally,
underline
a
word
in
your
definition
and
underline
a
 part
of
the
name
of
each
enzyme
that
look
similar.
 
 Helicase:
 
 
 
 Topoisomerase:
 
 
 
 Primase:
 
 
 
 DNA
Polymerase:
 
 
 
 Ligase:
 
 
 
 Telomerase:
 
 
 
 6.

For
the
sequence
provided
below,
a)
please
provide
the
complimentary
sequence
 for
the
boxed
region
of
each
strand
of
DNA,
b)
label
the
5’
and
3’
ends
of
your
 complimentary
strands,
c)
please
label
the
leading
strand
and
the
lagging
strand.
 
 
 
 7.

Please
state
whether
the
sequence
shown
below
is
RNA
or
DNA.

If
it
is
DNA,
 please
create
the
complimentary
strand
of
RNA.


If
it
is
RNA,
please
write
out
the
 amino
acid
sequence
that
would
be
produced
from
thetranscript.
 
 
 a)

ACCTGCATTCGGAG b)

AUGCGGGGAACUUAA
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 8.

Please
state
what
enzyme
is
utilized
in
the
following
scenarios,
and
state
what
 process
or
processes
would
utilize
the
enzyme:

 
 Processes:

Replication,
Transcription,
or
Translation
 
 i)

Creating
polymers
of
DNA
from
a
template
strand
of
DNA
 
 ii)

Creating
polymers
of
RNA
from
a
template
strand
of
DNA
 
 iii)

Unwinding
the
double
helix
of
DNA
 
 9.

Assuming
that
the
darker
colored
regions
of
the
mRNA
molecules
represent
 exons,
please
draw
the
molecules
below
after
they
have
undergone
splicing.

Note:

 you
do
not
need
to
color
the
segments
of
your
answers,
you
can
just
write
in
the
 corresponding
letters/numbers.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 10.

Bonus
(You
DO
NOT
have
to
answer
this
to
get
100
points
on
this
problem
 set).
 
 The
way
this
bonus
works:

If
you
answer
this
bonus
completely
and
fully,
you
 will
be
able
to
earn
2
points
that
will
be
added
to
your
overall
lecture
average.

 Please
note
that
I
will
grade
this
question
rigorously,
so,
while
it
will
not
hurt
 you
at
all
to
answer
it,
you
must
answer
it
thoroughly
to
receive
the
2
points.
 
 A
protein,
Protein
X,
is
a
protein
that
normally
acts
in
a
signal
transduction
 pathway.

After
receiving
a
message
from
outside
of
the
cell
Protein
X
then
sends
the
 message
to
the
nucleus
of
the
cell
which
results
in
specific
enzymes
and
proteins
 being
produced
that
contribute
to
cell
cycle
progression.
 
 Protein
X
works
by
being
turned
on
or
off
by
means
a
phosphorylation
event.

When
 phosphorylated,
Protein
X
exists
in
its
active
state
and
promotes
cell
cycle
 progression.

When
Protein
X
is
dephosphorylated,
it
does
not
promote
cell
cycle
 progression.
 
 The
region
of
Protein
X
where
phosphorylation
occurs
is
a
region
that
contains
the
 amino
acid
encoded
by
the
codon
GAA.

However,
if
this
particular
amino
acid
is
 changed
to
the
amino
acid
encoded
by
the
codon
GAC,
Protein
X
will
always
exist
in
 its
phosphorylated
state,
and
will
not
respond
to
outside
influence
or
 phosphorylation/dephosphorylation
events.
 
 Given
this
information,
and
using
all
of
the
proper
scientific
terminology,
enzymes,
 processes
and
events,
please
give
me
a
scenario
where
a
cancer
cell
could
arise
by
a
 cell
containing
the
altered
form
of
Protein
X.
 
 To
get
you
started
with
an
outline:
 
 You
must
first
start
with
DNA
replication
and
justify
how
the
mutation
in
the
 codon
was
obtained.

You
must
tell
me
when
and
why
that
DNA
replication
was
 occurring
in
the
first
place.

You
must
then
tell
me
how
that
altered
DNA
 eventually
leads
to
the
production
of
the
altered
protein.

Finally
you
must
tell
 me
how
that
altered
protein
eventually
causes
the
cell
to
become
cancerous.
 
 Pictures
and
diagrams
are
encouraged
and
welcomed,
but
a
brief
explanation
 must
accompany
each.
 
 You
may
ask
me
for
clarification
as
you
work
on
this
activity,
and
I
will
happily
 provide
it.
 ...
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