Biol 1406 Ch 12, 13, 16, 17 Review

Biol 1406 Ch 12, 13, 16, 17 Review - Cell
Cycle:
 


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Unformatted text preview: Cell
Cycle:
 
 1.

Know
the
definition
of
all
of
the
words
in
bold.
 
 
 2.

Know
the
difference
between
similar
key
terms
(ex.

Chromatin,
chromosome,
 chromatid,
centromere,
centrosomes,
centrioles,
etc).
 
 
 3.

Know
the
phases
(Mitotic
&
Interphase)
and
the
subphases
(G1,
S,
G2,
pro,
 prometa,
meta,
ana,
and
telo)
of
the
cell
cycle/cell
division,
and
know
what
happens
 in
each.
 
 
 4.

Which
part
of
the
cell
cycle
last
the
longest
amount
of
time:
Interphase
or
M
 phase?
 
 
 5.


Be
able
to
identify
different
stages
of
mitosis
in
both
plant
and
animal
cells
 (either
microscope
pictures,
or
drawn
pictures).

Know
the
key
events
that
occur
in
 each
stage,
distinguishing
it
from
the
others.
 
 
 6.

At
the
end
of
cellular
division,
know
what
the
name
of
the
process
is
that
results
 in
the
cytoplasm
dividing
as
well
as
what
the
structure
is
called
that
forms
when
this
 event
occurs.

Know
the
differences,
at
this
step,
between
plant
and
animal
cells.
 
 
 7.

Know
how
many
cells
are
produced
at
the
end
of
mitosis
as
well
as
how
those
 cells
compare
with
their
parent
cell
and
each
other
in
regards
to
their
genetic
 material.
 
 
 8.

What
difference(s)
exists
between
somatic
cells
and
gametes?
 
 
 9.

Scientists
hypothesize
that
the
signals
that
carry
out
most
of
cellular
division
 occur
in
a
specific
region
of
the
cell.

What
region
of
the
cell
is
this,
and
how
did
the
 scientists
arrive
at
this
conclusion?
 
 
 10.

What
safety
measures
does
a
cell
have
that
could
prevent
it
from
entering
the
 cell
cycle
if
it
is
not
prepared
to
do
so?

At
what
sub‐phases
are
these
measures
 implemented?
 
 
 11.

What
are
some
of
the
various
external
signals
that
can
affect
a
cell’s
willingness
 to
divide?
 
 
 12.

Know
what
can
go
wrong
in
regards
to
the
mechanisms
from
the
two
previous
 questions
that
can
cause
a
cell
to
become
cancerous.
 
 
 13.

Know
the
difference
between
malignant
and
benign
tumors
in
regards
to
their
 severity.
 
 
 Meiosis
 
 1.

Know
what
a
karyotype
is
and
why
it
is
beneficial.
 
 
 2.

What
is
the
difference
between
a
pair
of
sister
chromatids
and
a
pair
of
 homologous
chromosomes?
 
 
 3.

What
is
the
difference
between
autosomes
and
sex
chromosomes?

Which
 contributes
to
gender,
and
which
chromosomes
are
needed
to
get
a
male
or
female?
 
 
 4.

Be
comfortable
with
the
terms
haploid
and
diploid
as
well
as
knowing
how
much
 DNA
content
each
type
of
cell
contains
(1n
or
2n).
 
 
 5.

How
many
rounds
of
division
must
meiosis
go
through
before
it
is
complete?
 
 
 6.


After
gametes
form
a
zygote,
what
form
of
cellular
division
does
the
zygot
use
to
 grow?
 
 
 7.


Be
able
to
identify
each
and
every
stage
of
meiosis
as
well
as
events
or
structures
 that
are
unique
to
each
stage.
 
 
 8.

What
is
the
goal
of
meiosis?

How
many
cells
are
produced
at
the
end
of
it?

Are
 these
cells
identical
or
diverse
on
a
genetic
level
from
each
other
and
their
parental
 cell?
 
 
 
 9.

What
stages/events
occur
during
meiosis
that
promote
its
overall
goal?
 
 
 10.

How
many
sets
of
chromosomes
do
cells
at
the
end
of
meiosis
contain?
 
 
 DNA
Replication
 
 1.

What
are
the
three
components
that
together
compose
a
nucleic
acid?
 
 
 
 2.

Know
what
the
structure
looks
like,
as
well
as
what
bases
pair
up.

Know
the
 bonds
that
exist
between
a
base
and
another
base
compared
to
those
that
exist
 between
a
base
and
the
backbone
of
the
molecule.
 
 
 
 3.

How
do
the
bases
pair
up?

How
many
bonds
exist
between
each
pair?
 
 
 
 4.

Know
how
to
create
a
complimentary
strand
of
DNA
if
you
are
given
a
template
 strand.
 
 
 
 5.

Know
the
structures,
enzymes,
and
steps
that
are
required
for
DNA
replication
to
 occur.
 
 
 
 6.

Know
the
direction
that
DNA
is
made
in
compared
to
the
direction
in
which
it
is
 “read.”
 
 
 
 7.

What
causes
there
to
be
a
leading
and
lagging
strand
in
a
molecule
of
DNA
when
 it
is
being
replicated
and
what
are
Okazaki
fragments?
 
 
 
 8.

Know
about
the
ways
that
DNA
can
prevent
incorrect
pairing
of
bases
when
 replication
has
occurred.
 
 
 9.

What
is
the
importance
of
telomeres?

How
do
our
cells
maintain
their
integrity?

 Can
too
much
maintenance
be
a
bad
thing?
 
 
 
 Protein
Synthesis
 
 1.

Know
the
processes
involved
in
creating
RNA
from
DNA
and
protein
from
RNA.
 
 
 
 2.

Know
what
events
and
molecules
are
involved
in
Transcription
and
Translation.
 
 
 
 3.

Know
the
differences
between
DNA
and
RNA.
 
 
 
 4.

Understand
how
to
read
a
codon
and
determine
the
correct
amino
acid
sequence.
 
 
 
 5.

Where
does
transcription
begin
on
a
piece
of
DNA?

Where
does
it
end?
 
 
 
 6.

What
are
the
three
stages
of
transcription?
 
 
 
 7.

What
are
some
molecules/sequences
that
facilitate
transcription?
 
 
 
 8.

Why
is
RNA
capped
once
it
is
produced?
 
 
 
 9.

Know
the
steps
of
RNA
splicing,
the
proteins
involved,
as
well
as
the
region(s)
of
 RNA
that
are
sliced
out
or
in
of
the
final
product.
 
 
 
 10.

How
can
your
cell
produce
multiple
proteins
from
the
same
sequence
of
DNA?
 
 11.

What
are
the
three
different
types
of
RNA?

How
do
they
differ?

How
are
they
 similar?
 
 
 
 12.

Know
how
tRNA
becomes
bound
to
an
amino
acid
as
well
as
how
it
binds
to
 codons
of
the
mRNA
sequence.
 
 
 
 13.

What
are
the
three
sites
of
the
Ribosome
that
are
used
in
translation
and
what
 happens
at
each
site?
 
 
 
 14.

What
is
a
polysome?

What
is
the
benefit
to
the
formation
of
polysomes?
 
 
 
 15.

What
are
the
different
kinds
of
point
mutations
that
can
occur
in
a
sequence
of
 DNA?

How
does
this
affect
the
amino
acids
that
will
be
produced?
 
 ...
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This note was uploaded on 01/06/2012 for the course BIOL 1406 taught by Professor Markgarcia during the Fall '11 term at Collins.

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