Ch 1-4 Review

Ch 1-4 Review - Chapter 1-4 Review Chapter 1 Three domains...

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Chapter 1-4 Review Chapter 1 Three domains (groups) of life are: Bacteria Archae Eukarya Charles Darwin presented ideas that supported the theory of evolution . The mechanism by which evolution occurs is called natural selection . - Evolution is the instance of a species or subgroup of organisms evolving and adapting to their environment - Natural selection was inferred by observing that individuals in a population inherit different traits, and that certain individuals will produce more offspring that are capable of surviving, and thus pass on their traits. Example of Evolution and Natural Selection: Honey Bees and Giant Hornets Giant hornets attack and kill honey bees to get to their larva and pupa. 30 hornets can kill upwards of 30,000 bees. There are two different populations of bees. There are bees that will attack the hornets individually, and there are bees that will attack the hornets in a group (a bee ball). The bees that attack the hornets one by one will be unsuccessful in killing the hornets and the result will be that their colony is decimated. The bees that are able to form a bee ball will be able to kill any attacking hornets. The end result of this is that all populations of bees that attack the hornets one by one will be diminished while those that attack as bee balls will survive. Eventually, the only bees left will be bees that can form bee balls and kill the attacking hornets. NOTE that in this instance, and in most instances, natural selection is influenced by environmental factors. Inductive Reasoning: Analyzing observations and formulating a hypothesis or hypotheses Deductive Reasoning: Using more facts and theories to reach a conclusion and formulate further hypotheses Examples: IR: You observe eight fish swimming in a stream, and you notice that all eight of them have gills. You therefore hypothesize that all fish have gills.
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DR: You observe eight fish swimming in a stream, and you notice that all eight of them have gills. You now know that all fish have gills. You later see a shark at the local aquarium and notice that it has gills. You hypothesize that the shark is a fish. The Difference between a Hypothesis and a Theory Hypothesis: Proposed explanation for a set of explanations Theory: Supported by a large and usually growing body of evidence HINT: Typically theories are composed of a collection of experiments whose hypotheses have not yet been disproven Experiments can have multiple hypotheses: Example: Flashlight that doesn’t work Hypothesis 1: Flashlight doesn’t work because the bulb is burned out Hypothesis 2: Flashlight doesn’t work because the batteries are dead Test each hypothesis separately. Whichever hypothesis results in the light being fixed is confirmed as the correct hypothesis. If one does not work, try the other. If both don’t work, attempt them in tandem to see if they work together.
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Ch 1-4 Review - Chapter 1-4 Review Chapter 1 Three domains...

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