ES chapter 6 Community Ecology with pictures

ES chapter 6 Community Ecology with pictures - Chapter 6:...

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Chapter 6: Species Interaction & Community Ecology www.aw-bc.com/Withgott
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Species Interaction competition predation parasitism symbiosis mutualism amensalism commensalism herbivory
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Competition limited resources seeked by multiple species (density dependant) organisms food shelter water mates sunlight Intraspecific: between different species Interspecific: amongst individuals of the same
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Intraspecific Competition may exclude another species, also known also as competitive exclusion example: zebra mussel may coexist without interfering, also known as species coexistence. example: rat and mongoose in Hawaii
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Predation structures the food web influences community composition helps determine the relative abundance of predator and prey zebra muscle preys mostly on phytoplankton and some zooplankton these populations dropped 70% in Lake Erie and Hudson River, but cyanobacteria are not predated so their population increased. populations of ducks, muskrats, crayfish, flounder, sturgeon and eels prey on zebra muscle
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Parasites exploits other organisms without killing them immediatly, but may eventually cause death. depends on the host for nourishment or other benefit while harming the host. internal parasites: tapeworm, malaria, cholera, etc external parasites: ticks, fleas, sea lamprey Coevolution Coevolution : : host and parasite, as one changes, the other evolves to keep the interaction between them occuring
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Herbivores eat plants plants evolve defence mechanisms toxic or distasteful chemicals volatile chemicals that atract predators thorns swelled stems where ants live and protect it
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Symbiosis Mutualism Mutualism : relationship in which 2 or more species benefit from mycorrhizae human digestive tract and bacteria pollinating plants and bee
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Symbiosis Amensalism Amensalism : one is harmed while the other is unaffected. This is difficult to observe.
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ES chapter 6 Community Ecology with pictures - Chapter 6:...

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