ES Chapter 15 Freshwater resources with pictures

ES Chapter 15 Freshwater resources with pictures - Chapter...

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Chapter 15: Freshwater Resources Natural System, Human Impact and Conservation www.aw-bc.com/Withgott
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A: Freshwater Systems glaciers icecaps underground aquifers rivers & lakes
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Wetlands diverse ecological systems slow runoff reduce flooding recharge aquifers filter pollutants combinations of freshwater and dry land marshes : plants are allowed to grow above water level swamps : same as marshes but present in forest areas bogs : ponds roughly covered by vegetation www.aw-bc.com/Withgott
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Lakes and Ponds open standing water ecosystems vary according to depth littoral zone~ shores benthic zone~ bottom of lake limnetic zone~ away from shores, top of lake profundal zone~ similar to benthic, no sunlight
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Diversity of Ecosystems in Lakes and Ponds www.aw-bc.com/Withgott
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Groundwater precipitation that percolates through the soil 20% of Earth's freshwater unequal distribution climate change causing water shortage
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Aquifers porous spongelike formation of rock, sand and gravel formed by zone of aeration: not completely saturated zone of saturation: saturated with water water table : limit between zones of aeriation and saturation confined aquifer : rain cannot get to it by filtration unconfined aquifer : no upper layer that confines it
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Average Water Usage world wide→ 170,616 gal/yr/person U.S.A.→ 509,000 gal/yr/person poor countries→ 16,425 gal/yr/person source: U.N. Environmental Program 2002
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Water Usage altering environmental systems dams canals diversions consumptive use ~ water is consumed irrigation nonconsumptive use ~ water is returned to the system after use hydroelectric
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Dam's Drawbacks risk of failure Three Gorges dam cracks and sedimenting
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ES Chapter 15 Freshwater resources with pictures - Chapter...

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