CH01 - NEW WORLD ENCOUNTERS America: Past and Present...

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Unformatted text preview: NEW WORLD ENCOUNTERS America: Past and Present Chapter 1 Native American Histories before Conquest n 20,000 years ago--Siberian hunters become first American inhabitants n 14,000 years ago--Humans reach tip of South America. n These Paleo-Indians did not suffer from many communicative diseases Routes of the First Americans The Environmental Challenge: Food, Climate, and Culture n Native Americans enjoyed an abundant supply of meat u Some suggest they over-hunted and caused the extinction of several large species u Climatic warming probably played a much bigger role n 5,000 years ago-- Agricultural Revolution u Crops include maize, squash, and beans u Shift from nomadic hunting and gathering to permanent villages or large cities Mysterious Disappearances n Anasazi CultureChaco Canyon u Sophisticated irrigation u Well-built roads for transportation n Adena and Hopewell PeoplesOhio Valley u Large ceremonial mounds u Extensive trade network n CahokiaMississippi Valley u Large ceremonial mounds u Far-flung trade network Paleo-American Monuments Anasazi art Chaco Canyon Arrowheads Cahokia, IL Cahokia Mounds Aztec Dominance n Aztecs settle valley of Mexico n Center of large, powerful empire n Highly organized social and political structure n Rule through fear and force Eastern Woodland Cultures n Atlantic Coast of North America n Native Americans lived in smaller bands n Agriculture supplemented by hunting and gathering n Likely were the first natives encountered by English settlers Woodland Indians Squanto (Tesquantum) Locations of Major Indian Groups and Culture Areas in the 1600s A World Transformed n Large numbers of Europeans profoundly altered Native cultures n The rate of change varied from place to place n *French intermingled for trade n *Spanish exploited n *English settled n Native traditions changed radically for cultural survival Cultural Negotiations n Diversity of language groups, ethnicities n Define place in society through kinship n Communal, charismatic, sociopolitical formation n Diplomacy, trade, war organized around reciprocal relationships Confederacies...
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CH01 - NEW WORLD ENCOUNTERS America: Past and Present...

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