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Unformatted text preview: NEW NEW WORLD EXPERIMENTS: ENGLAND ’S ENGLAND’ SEVENTEENTHSEVENTEENTH-CENTURY COLONIES Chapter 2 Breaking Away n n n Rapid social change in seventeenthseventeenthcentury England English population mobile (rural to urban) Different motives for migration • • • religious versus economic politics personal: to escape bad marriages, jail terms, or lifelong poverty The Stuart Monarchs Four Four Colonial Subcultures n n n n The Chesapeake - commercial (indentured servants) New England - religious refuges (no slaves) Middle Colonies - commercial (indentured servants) The Carolinas - relocators from Barbados (brought slaves) The Chesapeake: Dreams of Wealth Dreams n n Richard Hakluyt and other visionaries keep alive the dream of English colonies AntiAnti- Catholicism prompts English people to challenge Spanish claims in New World Entrepreneurs in Virginia n n n JointJoint-stock companies provide financing -stock-holders - planters stockships Susan Constant, Godspeed & Susan Godspeed Discovery Discovery English stockholders in Virginia Company expect instant profits Jamestown: Jamestown: 1607 n n n Colony’ Colony ’s location in a swamp unhealthy bugs, contagious diseases & Indian attack Competition from expansive Powhattans loose federation of some 14,000 people Colonists do not work for common good Chesapeake Colonies, 1640 Lost Colony of Roanoke Spinning Out of Control n n n 1608-1609--John 1608-1609--John Smith imposes order “who does not work, does not eat.” eat.” 1609--London 1609--London (Virginia) Company reorganizes colonial government 1610-1610-- “Starving Time ” (some resorted to Time” cannibalism) ended by arrival of Lord De La Warr, fresh settlers Conflict Conflict with Powhattans • Contributes to “starving time ” time” • 1622 —natives attempt to drive out English • 1644 —second attempt to drive out English; Powhattan empire destroyed “Stinking Weed” Weed” n 1610-- John 1610--John Rolfe introduces tobacco n 1618-- Headrights” 1618-- “Headrights” instituted to encourage development of tobacco plantations • Headright: 50-acre lot to each colonist 50who pays his transportation, and for each servant brought • Allows development of huge estates Virginia n 1618-- House 1618--House of Burgesses instituted for Virginia self-government - 1st selfform of representative government in the colonies Time Time of Reckoning n Population increase prevented by imbalanced sex ratio • 3,570 colonists to Virginia 1619 -1622 1619• Men outnumber women 6:1 after 1619 n Contagious disease kills settlers • • • n 1618: Virginia population numbers 700 16181618 -1622: 3,000 immigrate 1622: Virginia population numbers 1,240 1622--Powhattan 1622--Powhattan attack kills 347 settlers Corruption and Reform n n n n n 1624-- King 1624--King James I dissolves London Company Virginia becomes a royal colony under Lord De la Warr House of Burgesses continues to meet Maryland: A Troubled Refuge for Troubled Catholics n n n Initiated by Sir George Calvert as refuge for English Catholics 1632-- Calvert’ 1632--Calvert ’s son Cecilius (2nd Lord Baltimore) gains charter to Maryland Requires toleration among Catholics and Protestants Maryland: Maryland: A Troubled Refuge for Catholics (2) n n n n n Wealthy Catholics unwilling to relocate in America Common settlers demand greater voice in Maryland government Protestants refuse to tolerate Catholics Protestants seize control in 1655 Scattered riverfront settlements of poor tobacco planters Reforming Reforming England in America n Pilgrims • • n n n Separatists who refused to worship in the Church of England, fled to Holland Left Holland - children becoming “unEnglish” unEnglish” 1620--Plymouth 1620--Plymouth founded Plymouth a society of small farming villages bound together by mutual consent (Mayflower Compact) 1691--absorbed 1691--absorbed into Massachusetts Bay “The Great Migration” Migration” n Puritans • n Wish to remain within the Church of England, work to eliminate all remaining vestiges of the Roman Catholic past 1629--Puritans 1629--Puritans despair as King Charles I begins Personal Rule (dissolved Parliament-beheaded in Parliament1640) “A City on a Hill” Hill” n n n n 1630-- John 1630--John Winthrop leads Puritan group to Mass., brings Company Charter 1630- 1640--16,000 1630- 1640--16,000 immigrated, usually as family units Area generally healthy Puritans sacrifice self- interest for the selfgood of the community “A City on a Hill” (2) Hill” n Puritans establish Congregationalism • n n a state -supported system in which each statecongregation is independently governed by local church members Puritan civil government permits voting by all adult male church members Elected officials not to concern themselves with voters ’ wishes voters’ “A City on a Hill” (3) Hill” n n n n n Local, town governments Most participated in public life at town level Townships commercial properties, shares of which could be bought and sold Village life intensely communal Laws and Liberties passed in 1648 to protect rights, ensure civil order Limits Limits of Dissent: Roger Williams n n n n An extreme Separatist Questioned the validity of the colony ’s charter Champions “liberty of conscience” conscience” Williams expelled to Rhode Island, 1636 Limits of Dissent: Anne Hutchinson n n n n Believed herself directly inspired by the Holy Spirit (in addition to Scripture) Believed “converted ” persons could live without converted” the Moral Law Charged that ministers preached a “covenant of works ” Banished to Rhode Island by General Court Mobility Mobility and Division n n n n New Hampshire--insignificant until Hampshire-- insignificant eighteenth century Rhode Island--received dissenters Island--received from Massachusetts (“Rogue” Island) (“Rogue” Connecticut--founded Connecticut --founded by Thomas Hooker New Haven--absorbed into Haven--absorbed Connecticut New New England Colonies, 1650 Canterbury Cathedral Old Ship Meeting House Middle Colonies, 1685 Wm. Penn New York Peter Stuyvesant AngloAnglo-Dutch Rivalry on the Hudson n n n n Location: Hudson River New Netherlands originally property of Dutch West Indies Company Population included Finns, Swedes, Germans, Africans, as well as Dutch 1664-- English 1664--English fleet captured colony, renames it New York AngloAnglo-Dutch Rivalry on the Hudson (2) n n n n New York made personal property of James, Duke of York Property included New Jersey, Delaware, Maine, and various islands Inhabitants had no political voice beyond the local level James derived little profit from the colony. Confusion in New Jersey n Colony sold by Duke of York to Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret William Berkeley n Settlers refuse to pay rents • n grounds: New York governor had promised representative assembly Berkeley splits colony by selling out to Quaker group Confusion in New Jersey (2) n n n n West Jersey becomes Quakers ’ Quakers’ colony Democratic system of government introduced Diverse, contentious Neither Jersey prospers, reunited by the crown in 1702 Quakers Quakers in America n n Pennsylvania founding inseparable from Quakers “Quaker” a derogatory term for those Quaker” who “tremble at the word of the Lord” Lord” Being led to hanging n Members call sect “Society of Friends” Friends ” Quaker Belief and Practice n n Founder: George Fox (1624-1691) (1624Believed in “Inner Light ” Light” • • • n Rejected biblical idea of original sin, predestination Each may communicate directly with God w/o benefit of Scripture Each has responsibility to cultivate Inner Light Persecuted as dangerous anarchists Penn's "Holy Experiment" n n n Aristocrat William Penn converts to the Society of Friends Obtains a charter for Pennsylvania "Holy Experiment"--a society run on Experiment"-Quaker principles n Promotes religious toleration - his undoing - & protection of property -less Settling Settling Pennsylvania n n n n Immigrants recruited from England, Wales, Ireland, and Germany Quaker population racked by contention NonNon- Quaker population does not share Penn’s ideals Penn’ 1701--Penn 1701--Penn grants self- rule to selfPennsylvania colonists, independence to Delaware Planting the Carolinas n Reliance on slave labor produced superficial similarity to Chesapeake Slave’s cabin n Plantation owner’s interior Diversity of settlers, environment produced great divergence from Chesapeake Proprietors of the Carolinas n n Granted by Charles II in 1663 to eight “Proprietors ” to reward loyalty Proprietors” Tried to recruit settlers from established American colonies • they were not easily persuaded n Few inhabitants in first years The The Barbadian Connection n n n n n n Anthony Ashley Cooper encourages settlement by planters from Barbados Barbadians settle around Charleston “Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina” Carolina” drawn up by John Locke Barbadians reject Fundamental Constitutions for greater self-government selfFrench Huguenot settlers oppose 1729--Strife 1729--Strife prompts Crown to take over, divide Carolina Founding of Georgia n n n n Georgia founded in 1732 Strategic: buffer between Carolinas and Spanish Florida Charitable: refuge for imprisoned debtors from England (no slaves) By 1751 a small slave colony The Carolinas and Georgia Charles Town, SC James Haversham Living Living with Diversity n n n All colonies faced early struggle to survive (?) Distinct regional differences intensified and persisted throughout the colonial period (?) Colonists eventually saw themselves as a distinct people ...
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This note was uploaded on 01/06/2012 for the course HIST 1301 taught by Professor Sarabostelmann during the Spring '11 term at Collins.

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