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Unformatted text preview: PUTTING PUTTING DOWN ROOTS: FAMILIES IN A COLONIAL EMPIRE Chapter 3 Sources of Stability: New England Colonies of the Seventeenth Century • New Englanders replicated traditional English social order • Contrasted with experience in other English colonies • Explanation lies in development of Puritan families Immigrant Families and New Social Order • God ordained the family • Reproduce patriarchal English family structure in New England • Greater longevity in New England results in “invention” of grandparents: 70 -80 invention” 70men, 60-70 women 60• Multigenerational families strengthen social stability - living heritage Commonwealth Commonwealth of Families • Most New Englanders married neighbors of whom parents approved • New England towns collections of interrelated households • Church membership associated with certain families • Education provided by the family Women’ Women’s Lives in Puritan New England • Women not legally equal with men • Marriages based on mutual love • Most women contributed to society as – – – wives and mothers (educators) church members (moral influence) smallsmall-scale farmers • Women accommodated themselves to roles they believed God ordained Social Hierarchy in New England • Absence of very rich (and, very poor) necessitates creation of new social order • New England social order becomes – – – local gentry of prominent, pious families large population of independent yeomen landowners loyal to local community small population of landless laborers, servants, poor The The Challenge of the Chesapeake Environment • Imbalanced sex ratio among immigrants more men than women • High death rate - disease, weather, Indian attack • Scattered population - small riverfront plantations Family Life at Risk • Normal family life impossible in Virginia – – – mostly young male indentured servants most immigrants soon died in marriages, one spouse often died within a decade • Serial marriages, extended families common • Orphaned children raised by strangers Women in Chesapeake Society • Scarcity gives some women bargaining power in marriage market • Women without family protection vulnerable to sexual exploitation • Childbearing extremely dangerous • Chesapeake women died 20 years earlier than women in New England The The Structure of Planter Society: The Gentry • Tobacco the basis of Chesapeake wealth • Great planters few but dominant – arrive with capital to invest in workers – amass huge tracts of land (headright) – gentry see servants as possessions • Early gentry become stable ruling elite by 1700 - enjoyed trappings of “nobility” nobility” The Structure of Planter Society: The Freemen • The largest class in Chesapeake society • Most freed at the end of indenture freemen v. gentry • Live on the edge of poverty The Structure of Planter Society: Indentured Servants • Servitude a temporary status • Conditions harsh • Servants regard their bondage as slavery not all indentured voluntary • Planters fear rebellion The The Structure of Planter Society: Post-1680s Stability Post• Gentry ranks open to people with capital before 1680 • Demographic shift after 1680 creates creole elite • Ownership of slaves consolidates planter wealth and position • Freemen find advancement more difficult after 1680 The Structure of Planter Society: A Dispersed Population • Large-scale tobacco cultivation requires Large– – great landholdings ready access to water-borne commerce water- • Result: population dispersed along great tidal rivers • Virginia a rural society devoid of towns Race and Freedom in British America • Indians decimated by disease • European indentured servant-pool wanes servant- after 1660 - conditions in England stabilize • Enslaved Africans fill demand for labor Roots Roots of Slavery • First Africans to Virginia in 1619 • Status of Africans in Virginia unclear for 50 years -many freemen; some plantation owners & slave-holders slave- • Rising black population in Virginia after 1672 prompts stricter slave laws (Barbados Code) – Africans defined as slaves for life (after 1700 based on skin color) – slave status passed on to children regardless of father’ father’s race – white masters possess total control – mixing of races not tolerated Origins and Destinations of African Slaves, 1619-1760 1619- Geography’ Geography’s Influence • Slave experience differed from colony to colony • 60% of South Carolina population black • Nearly half Virginia population black • Blacks much less numerous in New England and the Middle Colonies (?) African African Initiatives • Older black population tended to look down on recent arrivals from Africa (language, religion) • All Africans participated in creating an African American culture – Required an imaginative reshaping of African and European customs. • By 1720 African population, culture selfselfsustaining Slave Resistance • Widespread resentment of debased status • Armed resistance such as S. Carolina’s Carolina’ Stono Rebellion of 1739 a threat • Runaways common in colonial America • Black mariners, other travelers link black American communities Rise of a Commercial Empire • English leaders ignore colonies until 1650s - “salutary neglect” neglect” • Restored monarchy of Charles II recognized value of colonial trade • Navigation Acts - 1660, 1663, 1673, 1696) passed to regulate, protect, glean revenue from commerce Response Response to Economic Competition • “Mercantilism” a misleading term for English Mercantilism” commercial regulation • Regulations emerge as ad hoc responses to ad particular problems • Varieties of motivation – crown wants money – English merchants want to exclude Dutch – Parliament wants stronger Navy —encourage domestic shipbuilding industry – everyone wants better balance of trade Regulating Colonial Trade: The Navigation Act of 1660 • Ships engage in English colonial trade – – must be made in England (or America) must carry a crew at least 75% English • Enumerated goods only to English ports only – – 1660 list included tobacco, sugar, cotton, indigo, dyes, ginger 17041704-05 molasses, rice, naval stores also Regulating Colonial Trade: The Navigation Act of 1663 • Goods shipped to English colonies must pass through England • Increased price paid by colonial consumersconsumers- duties, port fees Regulating Regulating Colonial Trade: Implementing the Acts • Navigation Acts spark Anglo -Dutch trade Anglowars • New England merchants skirt laws (Smuggling) • English revisions tighten loopholes • 1696--Board of Trade replacing Lords of 1696--Board Trade • Navigation Acts eventually benefit colonial merchants Colonial Factions Spark Political Revolt, 1676-1691 1676• English colonies experience unrest at the end of the seventeenth century • Unrest not social revolution but contest between gentry “ins” and “outs ” ins” outs” • Winners gain legitimacy for their rule Civil Civil War in Virginia: Bacon's Rebellion • Nathaniel Bacon leads rebellion, 1676 • Blacks and women join, demand reforms • Charles II sends 1,000 “Regulars ” Regulars” • Gov. William Berkeley regains control • Rebellion collapses after Bacon’s death Bacon’ • Gentry recovers positions, unite over next decades to oppose royal governors The The Glorious Revolution in the Bay Colony: King Philip’s War Philip’ • 1675--Metacomet (King Philip) leads 1675--Metacomet WampanoagWampanoag-Narragansett alliance against colonists • Colonists struggle to unite, defeat Indians • Deaths total 1,000+ Indians and colonistscolonists - his head displayed on • a pike as a “warning” warning” Glorious Revolution: The Dominion of New England • 1684--King James II establishes 1684--King “Dominion of New England” England” – – colonial charters annulled, Maine to New Jersey united Edmund Andros appointed governor (cruel & repressive) • 1689--news of James II’s overthrow 1689--news II’ sparks rebellion in Massachusetts The Glorious Revolution in the Bay Colony: Outcomes • Andros deposed • William III and Mary II give Massachusetts a new charter – – incorporates Plymouth transfers franchise (vote) from "saints" to those with property Contagion Contagion of Witchcraft • Charges of witchcraft common – accused witches thought to have “compact with the devil” devil” Devil & Luther • Salem panic of 1691 much larger in scope than previous accusations - not confined to colonies Contagion of Witchcraft • 20 victims dead by drowning, hanging, burning or pressing before trials halted in summer of 1692 Increase Mather • Causes - factionalism, economics, repression The Glorious Revolution in New York • 1689--News of James II’s overthrow 1689--News II’ prompts crisis of authority in New York • Jacob Leisler seizes control • Maintains position through 1690 • March 1691 --Governor Henry Sloughter 1691--Governor arrests, executes Leisler The The Glorious Revolution in Maryland • 1689--news prompts John Coode to lead 1689--news revolt against Catholic governor • Coode's rebellion approved by King William • Maryland taken from Calvert (Catholic) control • 1715--proprietorship restored to the 1715--proprietorship Protestant fourth Lord Baltimore COMMON COMMON EXPERIENCES, SEPARATE CULTURES Purpose Families Ethnicity Economy New England Religious Nuclear families Mostly English Family farms Middle Colonies Mixed Nuclear families Mixed European Family farms Chesapeake Gain wealth Extended families Lower South Gain wealth Extended families English (majority) & African English & African (majority) Market planta tions (tobacco) Market plantations (rice, indigo) Local Local Aspirations Within an Atlantic Empire • By 1700 England’s attitude toward the England’ colonies had changed dramatically • Sectional differences within the colonies were profound • They were all part of Great Britain but had little to do with each other ...
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