CH04 - EXPERIENCE OF EMPIRE EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY AMERICA...

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EXPERIENCE OF EMPIRE: EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY AMERICA Chapter 4 Growth and Diversity u 1700-1750--colonial population rises from 250,000 to over two million u Much growth through natural increase u Large influx of non-English Europeans: German, Dutch, Welch, Irish, African Distribution of European and African Immigrants
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Ethnic Cultures of the Backcountry u 800 miles along Appalachian Range - western Pennsylvania to western Georgia u Already populated by Native Americans; African Americans u Large influx of European immigrants in the eighteenth century Scotch-Irish Flee English Oppression u Many from Northern Ireland - u Concentrate on the Pennsylvania frontier and Shenandoah Valley u Often regarded as a disruptive element - did not “settle”, heavy drinkers, politically outspoken Germans Search for a Better Life u Fled from warfare in Germany u Admired as peaceful, hard- working farmers u Tried to preserve German language, customs u Aroused the prejudice of English neighbors (feared their “taking over”)
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Convict Settlers u Transportation Act of 1718 - sent convicted felons to American colonies u 50,000 between 1718-1775 some felons were dangerous criminals most committed minor crimes against property life difficult for transported convicts u British praise system, colonists deplore it Native Americans Stake Out a Middle Ground u Many eastern Indians moved into trans-Appalachian region a "middle ground" where no colonial power was yet established u Remnants of different Indian peoples regrouped, formed new nations u European trade eventually weakened collective resistance to European aggression Spanish Borderlands of the Eighteenth Century u Indian resistance, lack of interest (in settling) limited Spanish presence u Never a secure political or military hold on borderlands
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the Eighteenth Century u Spain occupied a large part of America north of Mexico since sixteenth century - Florida Peninsula to California u Slow growth of Spanish population in borderlands - women few, found it hard Peoples of the Spanish Borderlands u
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CH04 - EXPERIENCE OF EMPIRE EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY AMERICA...

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