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Unformatted text preview: THE THE REPUBLICAN EXPERIMENT America: Past and Present Chapter 6 Defining Republican Culture § Post-Revolutionary Divisions Post– – balancing individual liberty with social order balancing property rights with equality § Varying answers result in varying Revolutionary governments Living in the Shadow of Revolution § Revolution introduced unintended changes into American society § Hierarchical social relations challenged § Fundamental questions raised about the meaning of equality Social Social and Political Reform § § § § Changes in laws of inheritance More liberal voting qualifications Better representation for frontier settlers Separation of church and state African Americans in the New Republic § African Americans embrace Declaration’ Declaration’s stress on natural rights § Demand right to freedom in petitions, suits § Northern states gradually abolish slavery § Southerners debate abolition – – some privately free slaves economic motives overcome republican ideals The The Challenge of Women's Rights § Women demand the natural right of equality § Contribute to new society through “Republican Motherhood” Motherhood” § Women more assertive in divorce, economic life § Denied political and legal rights Postponing Postponing Full Liberty § Revolution limited in extension of rights § Introduced ideal of freedom and equality § Future generations would make these ideals reality The States: Experiments in Republicanism § The people demand written constitutions – provide clear definition of rights – describe clear limits of government § Revolutionary state constitutions serve as experiments in republican government § Insights gleaned from state experiences later applied to constructing central government Blueprints for State Government § State constitution writers insist on preparing written documents § Precedents in colonial charters, church covenants § Major break with England’s unwritten England’ constitution Natural Natural Rights and the State Constitutions § State constitutions guarantee cardinal rights – – – – freedom of religion freedom of speech freedom of the press private property § Governors weakened § Elected assemblies given most power Power to the People § Procedure for adoption of Constitution pioneered by Massachusetts – – Constitution written by a special convention ratification by referendum of the people § State constitutions seen as flawed experiments § Growing sentiment for stronger central government Stumbling Toward a New National Government § War for independence requires coordination among states § Central government first created to meet wartime need for coordination Articles Articles of Confederation § John Dickinson’s plan for central Dickinson’ government – – proposed cession of West to Congress opposed proposed equality in state representation opposed § Articles of Confederation severely limit central government ’s authority over states § States suspicious of Articles Western Western Land: Key to the First Constitution § Maryland ratification of Articles delayed for Virginia’ Virginia ’s renunciation of Western claims § 1781--Virginia takes lead in ceding Western 1781--Virginia claims to Congress § Other states cede claims to Congress § Congress gains ownership of all land west of Appalachians Western Land Claims Ceded by the States Northwest Northwest Ordinance: The Confederation's Major Achievement § Creates 3-5 new territories in Northwest 3§ Population of 5,000 may elect Assembly § Population of 60,000 may petition for statehood § Bill of Rights provided § Slavery outlawed Northwest Territory Land Ordinance of 1785 Strengthening Strengthening Federal Authority § Inadequate authority over interstate affairs § Inadequate influence on national economy § Weak foreign policy The Nationalist Critique § Congress unable to address inflation, debt § Congress has no power to tax § Failure to pay soldiers sparks “Newburgh Conspiracy” Conspiracy ” (squelched by Washington) § Failure of reform prompts Nationalists to consider Articles hopelessly defective Diplomatic Humiliation § England keep troops on U.S. soil after 1783 § Spain closes New Orleans to American commerce in 1784 – John Jay to negotiate reopening Mississippi – instead signs treaty favoring Northeast – West and South denounce, Congress rejects JayJay - Gardoqui Treaty “Have We Fought for This?” This?” § By 1785 the country seemed adrift § Washington: “Was it with these expectations that we launched into a sea of trouble?” trouble?” The Genius of James Madison § Recognition by 1780s of shortcomings in small state republics § Stronger central government gains support § James Madison persuades Americans that large republics could be free and democratic Constitutional Reform § May 1786--Annapolis Convention agrees to 1786--Annapolis meet again, write a new constitution § Summer 1786--Shay’s Rebellion sparks 1786--Shay’ fears of national dissolution § Crisis strengthens support for new central government The The Philadelphia Convention § Convenes May 1787 § 55 delegates from all states except Rhode Island § Delegates possess wide practical experience Inventing a Federal Republic: The Virginia Plan § Central government may veto all state acts § Bicameral legislature of state representatives § Larger states have more representatives § Chief executive appointed by Congress § Small states object to large-state largedominance Inventing a Federal Republic: The New Jersey Plan § Congress given greater taxing powers § Each state would have one vote in a unicameral legislature § Articles of Confederation otherwise untouched Compromise Compromise Saves the Convention § Each state given two delegates in the Senate--a Senate--a victory for the small states § House of Representatives based on population--a population--a victory for the large states § Three-fifths of the slave population counted Threetoward representation in the House Compromising with Slavery § Issue of slavery threatens Convention’s Convention’ unity – – Northerners tend to be opposed Southerners threaten to bolt if slavery weakened § Slave trade permitted to continue to 1808 “Great as the evil is, a dismemberment of the Union would be worse. ” --James --James Madison The The Last Details § July 26—Committee of Detail formed to 26— prepare rough draft § Revisions to Executive – Electoral College ensures president will not be indebted to Congress – executive given a veto over legislation – executive may appoint judges § Decision that Bill of Rights unnecessary We, We, the People § Convention seeks to bypass vested interests of state legislatures § Power of ratification to special state conventions § Constitution to go into effect on approval by nine state conventions § Phrase “We the People ” makes Constitution People” a government of the people, not the states Whose Constitution? Struggle for Ratification § Supporters recognized the Constitution went beyond the Convention’s mandate Convention’ § Document referred to states with no recommendation Federalists Federalists § Supported the Constitution § Well-organized Well§ Supported by most of the news media AntiAnti -Federalists § Opposed to the Constitution § Distrusted any government removed from direct control of the people § Suspected the new Constitution favored the rich and powerful Progress Progress of Ratification § Succeed in winning ratification in 11 states by June 1788 § North Carolina ratifies November 1789 § Rhode Island ratifies May 1790 § Americans close ranks behind the Constitution Ratification Ratification of the Constitution Adding the Bill of Rights § The fruit of Anti-Federalist activism Anti§ Nationalists promise to add a bill of rights § First ten amendments added by December 1791 Success Depends on the People § Some Americans complained that the new government had a great potential for despotism § Others were more optimistic and say it as a great beginning for the new nation ...
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This note was uploaded on 01/06/2012 for the course HIST 1301 taught by Professor Sarabostelmann during the Spring '11 term at Collins.

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