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Unformatted text preview: REPUBLICAN REPUBLICAN ASCENDANCY: THE JEFFERSONIAN VISION America: Past and Present Chapter 8 Republican Identities in a New Republic n An age of rapid population growth – 7.2 million in 1810; two million more than 1800 – 20% black slaves – children under 16 the largest single group n n Strong regional identities Early secession movements threaten national unity North America in 1800 Westward Westward the Course of Empire n n Intense migration to West after 1790 New States – – – n Kentucky--1792 Kentucky --1792 Tennessee--1796 Tennessee--1796 Ohio--1803 Ohio --1803 Western regional culture rootless, optimistic Native American Resistance n n Western settlers compete for Indian land Indians resist – – n Tecumseh leads Shawnees, defeated Creeks defeated Settlers reject Indian-White coexistence Indian- Commercial Life in the Cities n n n n Economy based on agriculture and trade American shipping prospers 1793-1805 1793Cities associated with international trade, otherwise marginal role in national life Industrialization and mechanization just beginning to frighten skilled craftsmen Jefferson Jefferson as President n n n n n Jefferson personifies Republicanism’s Republicanism’ contradictions Despises ceremonies and formality Dedicated to intellectual pursuits A politician to the core Success depends on cooperation with Congress Jeffersonian Reforms n n n n n n Priority to cutting federal debt, taxes Federal expenses trimmed by cutting military Reduction of the army removes threat to Republican government Competent bureaucrats retained regardless of party Federalists retire from public life Ambitious Federalists become Republicans The Louisiana Purchase n n n n n 1801--France 1801--France buys Louisiana from Spain 1803--Jefferson 1803--Jefferson sends a mission to France to buy New Orleans Napoleon offers to sell all of Louisiana for $15 million Constitution vague on Congressional authority to purchase Purchase departs from Republican principle of strict separation The The Louisiana Purchase (2) n n n n Louisiana inhabitants French & Spanish Jefferson denies them self-rule selfLouisiana governed from Washington Another Jeffersonian departure from Republicanism The Lewis and Clark Expedition n n n Lewis and Clark Expedition commissioned prior to purchase of Louisiana Expedition left St. Louis May 1804 and reached the Pacific Ocean November 1805 Report on Louisiana ’s economic promise Louisiana’ confirms Jefferson's desire to purchase The Louisiana Purchase and the Route of Lewis and Clark Conflict Conflict With the Barbary States n n n n North African states demand tribute from ships sailing in Mediterranean Jefferson dispatches U.S. fleet to “negotiate through the mouth of a cannon” cannon” U.S. cannot defeat the Barbary States Action induces respect for U.S. rights The Barbary States Jefferson’ Jefferson’s Critics n n n Dispute over federal court system Conflicts between Republicans Sectional dispute over the slave trade Attack on the Judges: Judiciary Act n n n Judiciary Act of 1801 creates new circuit courts filled with loyal Federalists 1802--Jeffersonians 1802--Jeffersonians repeal Judiciary Act of 1801 to abolish courts Federalists charge violation of judges ’ judges’ Constitutional right of tenure Attack on the Judges: Marbury Marbury v. Madison n n n n Marbury v. Madison (1803) rules Judiciary Act of 1789 unconstitutional Federalist Marbury denied his judgeship Republicans claim victory Chief Justice John Marshall ensures Federalist influence through judicial review Attack Attack on the Judges: Impeachments n n n n 1803--Federalist 1803--Federalist John Pickering impeached, removed for alcoholism, insanity Republicans begin fearing the destruction of an independent judiciary Jefferson exacerbates fears by seeking to impeach Federalist Samuel Chase Republican Senate refuses to convict Politics of Desperation: “Tertium Quids” Quids” n n "Tertium Quids" claim pure Republicanism Attack Jefferson as sacrificing virtue for pragmatism Politics of Desperation: The Yazoo Controversy n Yazoo controversy – – – n fraudulent land case in Georgia Jefferson attempts to settle by providing land to innocent parties Quids complain settlement condones fraud Fletcher v. Peck (1810) – – Marshall court upholds Jefferson’s settlement Jefferson’ court may nullify unconstitutional state laws Murder Murder and Conspiracy: The Curious Career of Aaron Burr n n n n ViceVice-President Aaron Burr breaks with Jefferson 1804--Burr 1804--Burr seeks Federalist support in 1804 New York governor’s race governor’ Alexander Hamilton blocks Burr ’s efforts Burr’ Burr kills Hamilton in a duel The Burr Conspiracy n n n n n Burr flees West after Hamilton duel Schemes to invade Spanish territory Burr arrested, tried for treason John Marshall acquits on Constitutional grounds of insufficient evidence Precedent makes it difficult for presidents to use charge of treason as a political tool The Slave Trade n n n Congress prohibits slave trade after 1808 Northern Republicans call for emancipation of any black smuggled into the U.S. Southern Republicans win passage of law to hand such persons over to state authorities Embarrassments Embarrassments Overseas n n 1803--England 1803--England and France resume war American ships subject to seizure – – n n by England through “Orders in Council" by Napoleon through Berlin, Milan Decrees Jefferson refuses war to preserve financial reform Embargo--Jefferson’ Embargo--Jefferson’s alternative to war Embargo Divides the Nation n n n 1807--Congress 1807--Congress prohibits U.S. ships from leaving port Purpose: to win English, French respect for American rights Embargo unpopular at home – – – detailed government oversight of commerce army suppresses smuggling New England economy damaged A New Administration Goes New to War n n 1808--James 1808--James Madison elected President 1809--Embargo 1809--Embargo repealed in favor of NonNonIntercourse Act – U.S. will resume trade with England and France on promise to cease seizure of U.S. vessels A New Administration Goes to War (2) n n Madison reopens English trade on unconfirmed promise of British minister English reject agreement, seize U.S. ships that opened trade with England A New Administration Goes to War (2) n n n n Macon’ Macon’s Bill Number Two replaces the NonNon-Intercourse Act Trade with both England and France reestablished First nation to respect American rights wins halt of U.S. trade with the other Napoleon promises to observe U.S. rights but reneges when trade reopened Fumbling Fumbling Toward Conflict n n n n Tecumseh’ Tecumseh’s Western campaign seen as supported by British Congressional War Hawks demand war on England to preserve American honor June 1, 1812, Madison sends Congress a declaration of war War aims vague The Strange War of 1812: Early Course n Americans unprepared for war – – – – n Congress refuses to raise wartime taxes New England refuses to support war effort United States Army small state militias inadequate 1813--U.S. 1813--U.S. wins control of Great Lakes in Battle of Put-In Bay Put- Strange Strange War of 1812: The War’s Conclusion War’ n 1814--three1814--three-pronged English attack – campaign from Canada to Hudson River Valley stopped at Lake Champlain – campaign in the Chesapeake results in burning of Washington, siege of Baltimore – campaign for New Orleans thwarted by Andrew Jackson, January, 1815 n Treaty of Ghent signed December, 1814 The War of 1812 Hartford Convention: The Demise of the Federalists n n n n Federalists convene December, 1814 Proposed Constitutional changes to lessen power of South and West Treaty of Ghent, victory of New Orleans makes Convention appear disloyal Federalist party never recovers Treaty Treaty of Ghent Ends the War n n n Most problems left unaddressed Senate unanimously ratifies Treaty of Ghent Americans claim success in a "second war of independence" Republican Legacy n n n Founders begin to pass away in 1820s Thomas Jefferson and John Adams both die July 4, 1826 James Madison dies in 1836 – despairs that Declaration’s principles not yet Declaration’ extended to African Americans ...
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