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Unformatted text preview: THE THE TRIUMPH OF WHITE MEN'S DEMOCRACY America: Past and Present Chapter 10 Democracy in Theory and Practice n n n Fear that democracy would lead to anarchy wanes in the 1820s and 1830s Equality of opportunity stressed America becomes society of winners and losers Democracy and Society n n n n n n Egalitarian expectations despite growing economic inequality No distinctive domestic servant class No class distinctions in dress White male equality before the law radical by European standards Egalitarian attack on licensed professions Popular press the source of information and opinion Democratic Democratic Culture n n n n Artists work for mass, democratic audience rather than for an aristocratic elite Popular genres include Gothic horror, romantic fiction, melodramas, genre paintings Serious artists seek to inspire with neoclassical sculpture, landscapes of untamed nature Only a few truly avant -garde, romantic avantartists artists Democratic Political Institutions: Politics of Universal Manhood Suffrage n n n n n Nearly all adult white males gain right to vote without property qualification Appointive offices made elective Professional politicians emerged Public benefits of two -party system twoextolled Political machines develop at state level Democratic Political Institutions : National Parties n n n n n n Changes in presidential elections spur party growth Parties often serve special economic interests Parties share republican ideology, commitment to equality of opportunity Parties differ on how to achieve common aims Neither party seeks to extend rights beyond adult white male constituency Radical third parties argue the cause of African Americans, women, working people Economic Economic Issues n n n n Interest in government economic policy intensified after 1819 Some wanted to do away with banks, paper money, and easy credit Others wanted more government aid Political parties took stands on the role of the federal government in economic growth Labor Radicalism and Equal Rights n n n n Working men’s parties and trade unions men’ emerged in the 1820s and 1830s They advocated public education reform, a ten-hour workday, an end to tendebtors prison, and hard currency They made some gains but they proved to be only temporary The women’s rights movement and women’ abolitionists made little progress Jackson and the Politics of Democracy n n Jackson becomes a symbol of democracy’ democracy ’s triumph Actions of Jackson and his party refashion national politics in a democratic mold The The Election of 1824 and J. Q. Adams' Administration n n n n n The election of 1824 a five -way race fiveJackson wins popular vote Adams wins in House of Representatives with Henry Clay ’s support Clay’ Clay ’s appointment as Secretary of State leads to charges Adams "bought" the presidency MidMid-term election of 1826 gives Jackson forces control of Congress Jackson Comes to Power n Jacksonians organized for election of 1828 – – n n appeal to sectional self - interest selfmake politics exciting to the average man Jackson wins election as a man of the people Jackson democratizes presidency – – fires at will officeholders he does not like defends by asserting the right of all men to a government post Indian Indian Removal n n n n Indian removal policy inherited from prior administrations Jackson agrees that the federal government had not pushed Indians hard enough Responds to Cherokee resistance by asking Congress for Indian Removal act of 1830 1838--U.S. 1838--U.S. Army forces Cherokees west along the Trail of Tears Indian Removal The The Nullification Crisis n n n n n John C. Calhoun leads development of intellectual defense of state sovereignty 1828--tariff 1828--tariff passed, South Carolina objects but takes no action 1832--tariff 1832--tariff passed, South Carolina nullifies Jackson threatens to send army Both sides retreat – – South Carolina gets lower tariff Jackson demonstrates federal will The Bank War and the Second Party System n n "The Bank War" a symbolic defense of democratic value Leads to two important results – – economic disruption a two- party system two- Mr. Biddle's Bank n n n n Bank of the United States unpopular Open to charges of special privileges Manager Nicholas Biddle looks and behaves like an aristocrat Bank possesses great power and privilege with no accountability to the public The The Bank Veto and the Election of 1832 n n n Jackson vaguely threatens Bank in first term Biddle seeks new charter four years early Congress passes, but Jackson vetoes – – n claims the Bank is unconstitutional defends veto as a blow for equality Jacksonian victory in 1832 spells Bank ’s doom Killing the Bank n n n n Jackson destroys Bank by federal deposits Funds transferred to some state (“pet ”) (“pet” banks Biddle uses his powers to cause recession, attempts to blame Jackson Destruction of Bank provokes fears of dictatorship, costs Jackson support in Congress The The Emergence of the Whigs n Whig party a coalition of two forces – – n n opponents of Jackson AntiAnti- Masonic party Whigs defend activist government in economics, enforcement of “decency ” decency” Democrats weakened by – – defection of working- class spokesmen workingdepression produced by Jackson’s fiscal Jackson’ policies The Rise and Fall of Van Buren n n n n n n Martin Van Buren succeeds Jackson in 1836 Term begins with Panic of 1837 Laissez -faire philosophy prevents Van Buren from aiding economic distress Van Buren attempts to save government funds with independent subtreasuries Whigs block subtreasuries until 1840 Panic of 1837 blamed on Van Buren The The Rise and Fall of Van Buren (2) n n Whigs fully organized by 1840 Whig candidate William Henry Harrison – – n image built as a common man who had been born in a log cabin running mate John Tyler chosen to attract votes from states -rights Democrats states- Harrison and Tyler beat Van Buren Heyday of the Second Party System n n n Election of 1840 marks rise of permanent twotwo-party system in the U.S. Whigs and Democrats evenly divide the electorate for next two decades Parties offer voters a clear choice – – n Whigs support a "positive liberal state," community Democrats support "negative liberal state," individual Parties share a broad democratic ideology Tocqueville’ Tocqueville’s Wisdom n n Alexis de Tocqueville praises most aspects of American democracy Warns of future disaster if white males refuse to extend liberty to women, African Americans and Indians. ...
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This note was uploaded on 01/06/2012 for the course HIST 1301 taught by Professor Sarabostelmann during the Spring '11 term at Collins.

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