CH13 - AN AN AGE OF EXPANSIONISM America: Past and Present...

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Unformatted text preview: AN AN AGE OF EXPANSIONISM America: Past and Present Chapter 13 Movement to the Far West ? ? American settlement reaches Pacific in 1830s and 1840s Settlement encroaches on lands claimed by Mexico and England Borderlands of the 1830s ? ? 1842--Webster1842--Webster-Ashburton Treaty settles the northeast U.S.-Canadian boundary U.S.Americans begin settling in § § § Oregon territory (joint U.S., English claim) New Mexico territory (owned by Mexico) California (owned by Mexico) Territorial Territorial Expansion by the MidMid-Nineteenth Century The Texas Revolution ? ? ? ? 1820s--Americans 1820s--Americans move into Texas "Anglos" never fully accept Mexican rule 1829--Mexico 1829--Mexico tries abolishing slavery 1835--armed 1835--armed rebellion breaks out The The Republic of Texas ? ? ? ? ? March, 1836--Texans declare independence 1836--Texans April, 1836--Santa Anna defeated at San 1836--Santa Jacinto May, 1836--Santa Anna ’s treaty recognizes 1836--Santa Anna’ Texas' claim to territory (Mexico repudiates) Texas offers free land grants to U.S. settlers Annexation to U.S. refused by Jackson Texas Texas Revolution Trails of Trade and Settlement ? ? ? Santa Fe Trail closed to U.S. travelers as a result of Mexico’s war with Texas Mexico’ Oregon Trail conduit for heavy stream of settlers to the Oregon country Oregon settlers demand an end to joint U.S., English occupation The Mormon Trek: Westward Flight ? ? ? ? ? Church of Jesus Christ of the Latter Day Saints founded by Joseph Smith, 1830 Mormon church seeks revival of pure aboriginal American Christianity Mormons persecuted for unorthodoxy Flee New York for Nauvoo, Illinois Murder of Joseph Smith prompts resettlement to Great Salt Lake in Utah The The Mormons Trek: Mormons in Utah ? ? ? ? 1847--State 1847--State of Deseret established Desert transformed into farmland Mormons at first resist U.S. governance 1857--Brigham 1857--Brigham Young accepts post as territorial governor of Utah Western Trails Manifest Destiny and the MexicanMexican-American War ? ? Widespread call for annexation of newlynewlysettled lands “Manifest Destiny” a slogan of those Destiny” believing the U.S. divinely ordained to encompass Mexico and Canada Tyler Tyler and Texas ? ? ? ? ? 1841--John 1841--John Tyler assumes presidency after William Henry Harrison’s death Harrison’ Tyler breaks with Whigs 1844--Tyler 1844--Tyler negotiates annexation with Texas for re -election campaign issue reSenate refuses to ratify Tyler loses Whig nomination to Henry Clay The The Triumph of Polk and Annexation ? ? Democrats nominate James K. Polk Polk runs on expansionist platform § § ? ? annexation of Texas for Southern vote U.S. jurisdiction of Oregon for Northern vote Polk, Congress interpret his election as mandate for expansion Texas annexed before Polk inaugurated The The Doctrine of Manifest Destiny ? "Manifest destiny" first used in 1845 § § § ? God wants the U.S., His chosen nation, to become stronger Americans make new territories free and democratic growing American population needs land Limits to American expansion undefined Polk and the Oregon Question ? ? ? ? ? 1846--Polk 1846--Polk notifies Great Britain that the U.S. no longer accepts joint occupation England prepares for war, proposes division of the area Senate approves division of Oregon along 49o north latitude, Treaty of 1846 U.S. gains ownership of Puget Sound North condemned Polk for division Northwest Northwest Boundary Dispute War with Mexico ? ? ? ? May 13, 1846--War on Mexico declared 1846--War General Zachary Taylor wins campaign in northern Mexico Colonel Stephen Kearney captured New Mexico and joined John C. Frémont in taking Fré California by early 1847 September, 1847 --General Winfield Scott 1847--General occupies Mexico City Settlement of the MexicanMexicanAmerican War ? ? ? ? February, 1848--Treaty of Guadalupe 1848--Treaty Hidalgo Rio Grande becomes southern border New Mexico, California ceded to U.S. Mexican War politically contentious § § Whigs oppose Northerners see as Slave Power expansion The MexicanThe Mexican-American War Internal Expansionism ? “Young Americans” link territorial growth to other Americans” material achievements technological innovation—e.g. telegraph innovation— transportation improvements growth of trade mass immigration § § § § Discovery of California gold inspires transcontinental projects ? Territorial expansion wanes after 1848, economic, population growth continues ? The Triumph of the Railroad ? ? ? 1840s--railroad 1840s--railroad begins displacing canals Rail construction stimulates iron industry Railroads stimulate new forms of finance § § § bonds preferred stock government subsidies Railroads, Railroads, 1850 and 1860 The Industrial Revolution Takes Off ? ? Mass production, the division of labor makes production more efficient Factory system emerges § § § ? ? gather laborers in one place for supervision cash wages “continuous process" of manufacturing Agriculture becomes mechanized Northern economy based on interaction of industry, transportation, agriculture Mass Mass Immigration Begins ? ? ? ? ? 1840-1860--4 1840-1860--4 million Irish, Germans immigrate to U.S. Most come for higher wages Immigrants fill low -paying jobs in port lowcities Low immigrant wages contribute to slums Urban reform movement results Immigration to the United States, 18201820 -1860 The New Working Class ? ? ? ? ? 1840s--factory 1840s--factory labor begins shifting from women, children to men Immigrants dominate new working class Employers less involved with laborers PostPost-1837 employers demand more work for less pay Unions organized to defend worker rights The The New Working Class (2) ? ? ? Wage laborers resent discipline, continuous nature of factory work Workers cling to traditional work habits Adjustment to new work style was painful and took time The Costs of Expansion ? Working class poses problem for ideals § § ? ? ? working for wages assumed the first step toward becoming one’s own master one’ new class of permanent wage-earners conflicts wagewith old ideal Economic expansion creates conflicts between classes Territorial expansion creates conflicts between sections Both sets of conflicts uncontrollable ...
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This note was uploaded on 01/06/2012 for the course HIST 1301 taught by Professor Sarabostelmann during the Spring '11 term at Collins.

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